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Total work and gender: facts and possible explanations

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  • Michael Burda
  • Daniel Hamermesh

    ()

  • Philippe Weil

Abstract

Time-diary data from 27 countries show a negative relationship between GDP per-capita and gender differences in total work—for pay and at home. In rich non-Catholic countries, men and women average about the same amount of total work. Survey results show scholars and the general public believe that women work more. Widespread average equality does not arise from gender differences in the price of time, intra-family bargaining or spousal complementarity. Several theories, including ones based on social norms, might explain these findings and are consistent with evidence from the World Values Surveys and microeconomic data from Australia and Germany. Copyright The Author(s) 2013

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Population Economics.

Volume (Year): 26 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 239-261

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Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:26:y:2013:i:1:p:239-261

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Related research

Keywords: Time use; Gender differences; Household production; J22; J16; D13;

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  1. Charlene Kalenkoski & David Ribar & Leslie Stratton, 2009. "The influence of wages on parents’ allocations of time to child care and market work in the United Kingdom," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 399-419, April.
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  3. Peter Kooreman, 2007. "Time, money, peers, and parents; some data and theories on teenage behavior," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 9-33, February.
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  5. Kooreman, P., 2007. "Time, money, peers, and parents: Some data and theories on teenage behavior," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-284132, Tilburg University.
  6. Shelly Lundberg & Robert A. Pollak, 1996. "Bargaining and Distribution in Marriage," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(4), pages 139-158, Fall.
  7. Jeremy Greenwood & Ananth Seshadri & Mehmet Yorukoglu, 2002. "Engines of Liberation," Economie d'Avant Garde Research Reports 2, Economie d'Avant Garde.
  8. Akerlof, George A, 1980. "A Theory of Social Custom, of Which Unemployment May be One Consequence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 94(4), pages 749-75, June.
  9. Burda, Michael C. & Hamermesh, Daniel S. & Weil, Philippe, 2007. "Total Work, Gender and Social Norms," IZA Discussion Papers 2705, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Ngai, L. Rachel & Pissarides, Christopher A., 2007. "Trends in Hours and Economic Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 2540, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Solomon W. Polachek & Jun Xiang, 2009. "The Gender Pay Gap across Countries: A Human Capital Approach," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 227, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  12. Cigno, Alessandro, 2009. "What's the Use of Marriage?," IZA Discussion Papers 4635, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Matthias Doepke & Michele Tertilt, 2008. "Women's Liberation: What's in It for Men?," Discussion Papers 07-037, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  14. Richard B. Freeman & Ronald Schettkat, 2005. "Marketization of household production and the EU-US gap in work," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 20(41), pages 6-50, 01.
  15. Lindbeck, Assar & Nyberg, Sten & Weibull, Jörgen W., 1997. "Social Norms and Economic Incentives in the Welfare State," Working Paper Series 476, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  16. Gershuny, Jonathan, 2000. "Changing Times: Work and Leisure in Postindustrial Society," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198287872.
  17. Borjas, George J, 1992. "Ethnic Capital and Intergenerational Mobility," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(1), pages 123-50, February.
  18. Hamermesh, Daniel S., 2000. "Timing, Togetherness and Time Windfalls," IZA Discussion Papers 173, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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Cited by:
  1. Vivien Procher & Nolan Ritter & Colin Vance, 2014. "Making dough or baking dough? Spousal housework responsibilities in Germany, 1992-2011," Schumpeter Discussion Papers SDP14004, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
  2. Daiji Kawaguchi & Jungmin Lee & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2012. "A Gift of Time," NBER Working Papers 18643, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Alessandro Cigno, 2012. "Marriage as a commitment device," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 193-213, June.
  4. Ngai, L. Rachel & Petrongolo, Barbara, 2014. "Gender Gaps and the Rise of the Service Economy," IZA Discussion Papers 8134, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. L. Rachel Ngai & Barbara Petrongolo, 2014. "Gender Gaps and the Rise of the Service Economy," Discussion Papers 1404, Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM).
  6. L. Rachel Ngai & Barbara Petrongolo, 2013. "Gender gaps and the rise of the service economy," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 51538, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  7. Robert A. Pollak, 2013. "Allocating Household Time: When Does Efficiency Imply Specialization?," NBER Working Papers 19178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Stancanelli, Elena G. F., 2014. "Divorcing Upon Retirement: A Regression Discontinuity Study," IZA Discussion Papers 8117, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Jan Kabatek & Arthur Van Soest & Elena Stancanelli, 2014. "Income taxation, labour supply and housework: a discrete choice model for French couples," PSE - Labex "OSE-Ouvrir la Science Economique" hal-00966801, HAL.
  10. Hamermesh, Daniel S. & Trejo, Stephen, 2010. "How Do Immigrants Spend Their Time? The Process of Assimilation," IZA Discussion Papers 5010, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. repec:hal:cesptp:hal-00966801 is not listed on IDEAS

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