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Preemptive entry in differentiated product markets

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  • Simon P. Anderson

    ()
    (Department of Economics, UVA, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA)

  • Maxim Engers

    ()
    (Department of Economics, UVA, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA)

Abstract

Models of spatial competition are typically static, and exhibit multiple free-entry equilibria. Incumbent firms can earn rents in equilibrium because any potential entrant expects a significantly lower market share (since it must fit into a niche between incumbent firms) along with fiercer price competition. Previous research has usually concentrated on the zero-profit equilibrium, at which there is normally excessive entry, and so an entry tax would improve the allocation of resources. At the other extreme, the equilibrium with the greatest rent per firm normally entails insufficient entry, so an entry subsidy should be prescribed. A model of sequential firm entry (with an exogenous order of moves) resolves the multiplicity problem but raises a new difficulty: firms that enter earlier can expect higher spatial rents, and so firms prefer to be earlier in the entry order. This tension disappears when firms can compete for entry positions. We therefore suppose that firms can commit capital early to the market in order to lay claim to a particular location. This temporal competition dissipates spatial rents in equilibrium and justifies the sequential move structure. However, the policy implications are quite different once time is introduced. An atemporal analysis of the sequential entry process would prescribe an entry subsidy, but once proper account is taken of the entry dynamics, a tax may be preferable.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Economic Theory.

Volume (Year): 17 (2001)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 419-445

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Handle: RePEc:spr:joecth:v:17:y:2001:i:2:p:419-445

Note: Received: April 26, 1999; revised version: September 22, 1999
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Related research

Keywords: Product differentiation; Rent dissipation; Entry deterrence; Entry timing; Sequential entry.;

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References

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  1. Anderson, Simon P & Engers, Maxim, 1994. "Strategic Investment and Timing of Entry," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(4), pages 833-53, November.
  2. Spence, Michael, 1976. "Product Selection, Fixed Costs, and Monopolistic Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(2), pages 217-35, June.
  3. Curtis Eaton, B. & Schmitt, N., 1991. "Flexible Manufacturing and Market Structure," Papers 1991-02, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
  4. Capozza, Dennis R & Van Order, Robert, 1980. "Unique Equilibria, Pure Profits, and Efficiency in Location Models," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 1046-53, December.
  5. Vickrey, William S. & Anderson, Simon P. & Braid, Ralph M., 1999. "Spatial competition, monopolistic competition, and optimum product diversity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 953-963, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Simon Loertscher & Gerd Muehlheusser, 2008. "Dynamic Location Games," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1042, The University of Melbourne.
  2. Aurélie Bonein & Stéphane Turolla, 2007. "Sequential Location under one-sided Demand Uncertainty," Working Papers 07-12, LAMETA, Universtiy of Montpellier, revised Nov 2007.
  3. Simon P., ANDERSON & Jean J., GABSZEWICZ, 2005. "The media and advertising : a table of two-sided markets," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2005060, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  4. Innes, Robert, 2008. "Entry for merger with flexible manufacturing: Implications for competition policy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 266-287, January.
  5. Cabral, Luis M. B., 2003. "Horizontal mergers with free-entry: why cost efficiencies may be a weak defense and asset sales a poor remedy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 607-623, May.
  6. Gupta, Barnali & Lai, Fu-Chuan & Pal, Debashis & Sarkar, Jyotirmoy & Yu, Chia-Ming, 2004. "Where to locate in a circular city?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 759-782, June.
  7. AMIR, Rabah & LAMBSON, Val E., 2004. "Imperfect competition, integer constraints and industry dynamics," CORE Discussion Papers 2004042, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  8. Matsumura, Toshihiro & Okamura, Makoto, 2006. "A note on the excess entry theorem in spatial markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 1071-1076, September.

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