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Exporte und Firmenerfolg: Welche Firmen profitieren wie vom internationalen Handel?

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  • Joachim Wagner

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Abstract

Zahlreiche Untersuchungen belegen, dass die exportierenden Firmen den nur für den Inlandsmarkt produzierenden Firmen in vieler Hinsicht überlegen sind – sie sind im Durchschnitt größer, produktiver und innovativer, und sie waren dies schon, bevor sie mit dem Export begonnen haben. Eine offene Frage ist, wie und in welchem Maße die Firmen dann vom Export profitieren. Ökonometrische Auswertungen auch der Basis von Längsschnittdaten von Firmen zeigen nur selten positive Auswirkungen der Exportaktivitäten. Dies kann auch an den hierbei verwendeten Methoden liegen, denn ein Vergleich der exportierenden Firmen mit sich selbst in einer Situation ohne Export ist ja nicht möglich. Eine direkte Befragung von Exporteuren kann hier neue Erkenntnisse bringen. Eine Befragung von exportierenden Firmen aus den IHK-Bezirken Lüneburg- Wolfsburg und Stade zeigt, dass die Firmen sehr heterogen sind – nicht alle profitieren in gleicher Weise und in gleichem Maße vom Export. Große positive Effekte finden sich bei mehr als der Hälfte der Firmen bezogen auf Wachstum, Kapazitätsauslastung und Erträge sowie bei rund 40 Prozent mit Bezug auf den Ausgleich inländischer Konjunkturschwankungen. Umgekehrt sieht es bei den „Lerneffekten“ (Anregungen von Auslandskunden zur Verbesserung der Produkte; Steigerung der Produktivität als Reaktion auf höheren Wettbewerbsdruck auf Auslandsmärkten; bessere Einschätzung der eigenen Konkurrenzfähigkeit aufgrund von Kontakten mit Konkurrenten auf Auslandsmärkten und daraus folgende entsprechende Reaktionen) aus – hier überwiegen deutlich die Angaben wonach keine oder allenfalls geringe Effekte vorliegen. Was erklärt die in der Befragung festgestellten Unterschiede zwischen den Firmen in Bezug auf die Auswirkungen der Exporttätigkeit? Als zentrales Ergebnis können wir festhalten, dass bis auf den Exportanteil am Umsatz keine der anderen betrachteten Firmeneigenschaften wie Größe, Dauer der Exporterfahrung, Forschungs- und E

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv.

Volume (Year): 3 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 (October)
Pages: 109-122

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Handle: RePEc:spr:astaws:v:3:y:2009:i:2:p:109-122

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Related research

Keywords: Exporte; Firmenerfolg; Niedersachsen; F14; D21;

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References

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  1. Alexander Vogel & Joachim Wagner, 2008. "Higher Productivity in Importing German Manufacturing Firms: Self-selection, Learning from Importing, or Both?," Working Paper Series in Economics 106, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  2. Gianmarco Ottaviano & Thierry Mayer, . "The happy few: the internationalisation of European firms," Blueprints, Bruegel, number 12, June.
  3. Richard Kneller & Mauro Pisu, 2010. "The returns to exporting: evidence from UK firms," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 43(2), pages 494-519, May.
  4. Thorsten Schank & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2008. "Higher Wages in Exporting Firms: Self-selection, Export Effect, or Both? First Evidence from German Linked Employer-Employee Data," Working Paper Series in Economics 74, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
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  7. Joachim Wagner, 2005. "Exports and Productivity: A survey of the evidence from firm level data," Working Paper Series in Economics 4, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  8. Bernard, A. & Wagner, J., 1996. "Exports and Success in German Manufacturing," Working papers 96-10, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  9. George A. Akerlof, 2007. "The Missing Motivation in Macroeconomics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(1), pages 5-36, March.
  10. Alan S. Blinder, 1990. "Learning by Asking Those Who Are Doing," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 16(4), pages 297-306, Oct-Dec.
  11. Leslie E. Papke & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 1993. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(k) Plan Participation Rates," NBER Technical Working Papers 0147, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Schank, Thorsten & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2007. "Do exporters really pay higher wages? First evidence from German linked employer-employee data," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 52-74, May.
  13. Wagner, Joachim, 2001. "The causal effects of exports on firm size and labor productivity: First evidence from a matching approach," HWWA Discussion Papers 155, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  14. Richard Williams, 2006. "Generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds models for ordinal dependent variables," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 6(1), pages 58-82, March.
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