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Land Aggregation Using Contingent and Guaranteed Payments

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  • Arthur Zillante

    ()
    (Associate Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223, USA; corresponding author.)

  • Peter M. Schwarz

    ()
    (Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223, USA;)

  • Dustin C. Read

    ()
    (Director of the Center for Real Estate, Department of Finance, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 320 E. 9th Street, Charlotte, NC 28202, USA;)

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    Abstract

    This article explores the use of alternative payment mechanisms to overcome the holdout problem when multiple parcels of land must be acquired to complete a real-estate development project. Purchase offers contingent upon successful land aggregation are compared to combination offers containing both guaranteed and contingent payments to determine which approach better mitigates holdout. The distribution of gains between developers and landowners is also examined. The results of a series of economic experiments suggest that contingent offers expedite land aggregation but developer payoffs are higher when combination offers are used. The results offer insight to real-estate developers participating in land aggregation and inform government entities considering the necessity of public-sector intervention in real-estate markets to encourage desired development projects.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4284/0038-4038-2012.047
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Southern Economic Association in its journal Southern Economic Journal.

    Volume (Year): 80 (2014)
    Issue (Month): 3 (January)
    Pages: 702-727

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    Handle: RePEc:sej:ancoec:v:80:3:y:2014:p:702-727

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    Web page: http://www.southerneconomic.org/
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    Cited by:
    1. Thomas J. Miceli & Kathleen Segerson, 2014. "Opportunism in Sequential Investment Settings: On Holdups and Holdouts," Working papers 2014-08, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.

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