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The Role of Exclusive Territories in Producers' Competition

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  • Patrick Rey
  • Joseph Stiglitz

Abstract

This article shows how vertical restraints, which affect intrabrand competition, can and will be used for reducing interbrand competition. Exclusive territories alter the perceived demand curve, making each producer believe he faces a less elastic demand curve, inducing an increase in the equilibrium price and producers' profits, even in the absence of franchise fees for recapturing retailers' rents. We analyze this strategic effect in a model that specifies the full range of feasible vertical contracts; thus we endogenize both whether exclusive contracts are employed and, if employed, the contract terms. Equilibria involve exclusive territories (with or without franchise fees), resulting in higher prices and profits but lower consumer surplus and total welfare.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by The RAND Corporation in its journal RAND Journal of Economics.

Volume (Year): 26 (1995)
Issue (Month): 3 (Autumn)
Pages: 431-451

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Handle: RePEc:rje:randje:v:26:y:1995:i:autumn:p:431-451

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References

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  1. Bonanno, Giacomo & Vickers, John, 1988. "Vertical Separation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 257-65, March.
  2. Timothy W. McGuire & Richard Staelin, 1983. "An Industry Equilibrium Analysis of Downstream Vertical Integration," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 2(2), pages 161-191.
  3. Stiglitz, J. & Rey, P., 1988. "Vertical Restraints And Producers' Competition," Papers 13, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Discussion Paper.
  4. Fershtman, Chaim & Judd, Kenneth L, 1987. "Equilibrium Incentives in Oligopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 927-40, December.
  5. Vickers, John, 1985. "Delegation and the Theory of the Firm," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(380a), pages 138-47, Supplemen.
  6. Bulow, Jeremy I & Geanakoplos, John D & Klemperer, Paul D, 1985. "Multimarket Oligopoly: Strategic Substitutes and Complements," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(3), pages 488-511, June.
  7. Bernheim, B Douglas & Whinston, Michael D, 1986. "Common Agency," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 923-42, July.
  8. G.F. Mathewson & R.A. Winter, 1984. "An Economic Theory of Vertical Restraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(1), pages 27-38, Spring.
  9. B. Douglas Bernheim & Michael D. Whinston, 1985. "Common Marketing Agency as a Device for Facilitating Collusion," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(2), pages 269-281, Summer.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Kang, Yeongjae, 1996. "Unobservable Vertical Restraints and Interbrand Competition," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 136, Stockholm School of Economics.
  2. Chen, Shieh-Liang & Liang, Hao-An, 2014. "Cause mapping of simple and complex marketing strategies," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 2867-2876.
  3. Cooper, James C. & Froeb, Luke M. & O'Brien, Dan & Vita, Michael G., 2005. "Vertical antitrust policy as a problem of inference," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(7-8), pages 639-664, September.
  4. Kretschmer, Tobias & Miravete, Eugenio J & Pernías, Jose C, 2011. "Competitive Pressure and the Adoption of Complementary Innovations," CEPR Discussion Papers 8289, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. William Comanor & Patrick Rey, 2000. "Vertical Restraints and the Market Power of Large Distributors," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 135-153, September.
  6. H. Møllgaard & Jochen Lorentzen, 2004. "Exclusive Safeguards and Technology Transfer: Subcontracting Agreements in Eastern Europe's Car Component Industry," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 41-71, January.
  7. Etro Federico, 2010. "Endogenous Market Structures and Contract Theory. Delegation, principal-agent contracts, screening, franchising and tying," Working Papers 2010_25, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
  8. Federico Etro, 2010. "Endogenous Market Structures and Contract Theory," Working Papers 181, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2010.
  9. Barick Chung & Eric Rasmusen, 2008. "Price Discrimination between Retailers with and without Market Power," Working Papers 2008-14, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
  10. Lafontaine, Francine & Slade, Margaret, 2007. "Vertical Integration and Firm Boundaries : The Evidence," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 799, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  11. Aggey Semenov & Julian Wright, 2011. "Entry deterrrence via renegotiation-proof non-exclusive contracts," Working Papers 1105E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
  12. Matteo Bassi & Marco Pagnozzi & Salvatore Piccolo, 2013. "Entry and Product Variety with Competing Supply Chains," CSEF Working Papers 343, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  13. Hastings, Justine, 2000. "Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt0bw767hm, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  14. Howard Marvel & James Peck, 2000. "Vertical Control, Retail Inventories & Product Variety," Working Papers 00-09, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
  15. David Martimort & Salvatore Piccolo, 2010. "The Strategic Value of Quantity Forcing Contracts," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 204-29, February.
  16. Sass, Tim R., 2005. "The competitive effects of exclusive dealing: Evidence from the U.S. beer industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(3-4), pages 203-225, April.
  17. Justine S. Hastings, 2004. "Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 317-328, March.
  18. Kálecz-Simon, András & Bakó, Barna, 2012. "Vertikális korlátozások - növelik vagy csökkentik a jólétet?. Érvek az irodalomból
    [Vertical constraints - do they increase or reduce welfare?. Arguments in the literature]
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(10), pages 1138-1159.
  19. Aggey Semenov & Julian Wright, 2011. "Vertical Limit pricing," Working Papers 1104E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.

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