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Integration of the Sales Force: An Empirical Examination

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  • Erin Anderson
  • David C. Schmittlein
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    Abstract

    This article develops and tests a model of integration of a marketing function, personal selling. The model, derived from transaction cost analysis as developed principally by Williamson, is formulated as a logistic function, which is estimated with data from the electronic components industry. As expected, integration is associated with increasing levels of asset specificity, difficulty of performance evaluation, and the combination of these two factors. Contrary to the transaction cost model, neither frequency of transactions nor interaction of specificity and environmental uncertainty is significantly related to integration. The transaction cost model improves significantly upon the fit of a simple model relating integration to company size alone. These results suggest that for studying transactions of this kind, it is fruitful to view the firm as a governance structure.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by The RAND Corporation in its journal RAND Journal of Economics.

    Volume (Year): 15 (1984)
    Issue (Month): 3 (Autumn)
    Pages: 385-395

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    Handle: RePEc:rje:randje:v:15:y:1984:i:autumn:p:385-395

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    Cited by:
    1. Timothy Bresnahan & Jonathan Levin, 2012. "Vertical Integration and Market Structure
      [The Handbook of Organizational Economics]
      ," Introductory Chapters, Princeton University Press.
    2. Birger Wernerfelt, 1988. "Economic Organization of Trading Relationships: Hierarchies and Asset Ownership," Discussion Papers 824, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    3. Douadia Bougherara & Gilles Grolleau & Naoufel Mzoughi, 2009. "Buy Local, Pollute Less: What Drives Households to Join A Community Supported Farm ?," Working Papers 26135, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
    4. Ghozzi, Houda, 2008. "Examining resource based view against transactional costs Approach in the french poultry industry : treading upon eggs," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/2412, Paris Dauphine University.
    5. Bai, Chong-En & Xu, Lixin Colin, 2005. "Incentives for CEOs with multitasks: Evidence from Chinese state-owned enterprises," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 517-539, September.
    6. Jed Devaro & Fidan Ana Kurtulus, 2011. "An Empirical Analysis of Risk, Incentives and The Delegation of Worker Authority," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2011-13, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
    7. DeVaro, Jed, 2011. "Using "opposing responses" and relative performance to distinguish empirically among alternative models of promotions," MPRA Paper 35175, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Rangan, V. Kasturi & Nueno, Jose L., 1999. "Channel strategy adaptation," IESE Research Papers D/380, IESE Business School.
    9. James Jr., Harvey S., 1998. "Are employment and managerial control equivalent? Evidence from an electronics producer," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 447-471, September.
    10. Jain, Amit, 2011. "Connaissance, ressources, concurrence et les frontières de l'entreprise," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/6403 edited by Thiétart, Raymond-Alain.
    11. Francine Lafontaine & Margaret Slade, 2007. "Vertical Integration and Firm Boundaries: The Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(3), pages 629-685, September.
    12. W. Coles, Jerilyn & Hesterly, William S., 1998. "The impact of firm-specific assets and the interaction of uncertainty: an examination of make or buy decisions in public and private hospitals," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 383-409, August.
    13. Canice Prendergast, 1999. "The Provision of Incentives in Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 7-63, March.
    14. Harvey S. James Jr., 1997. "A Tale of Two Wages: Separating Contract from Governance," Microeconomics 9705001, EconWPA.
    15. Davide Vannoni, 1999. "Empirical Studies of Vertical Integration: the Transaction Cost Orthodoxy," CERIS Working Paper 199903, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
    16. Bengt Holmstrom & John Roberts, 1998. "The Boundaries of the Firm Revisited," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 73-94, Fall.
    17. Mitchell Berlin, 2001. ""We control the vertical": three theories of the firm," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Q3, pages 13-22.
    18. Silke Januszewski Forbes & Mara Lederman, 2009. "Adaptation and Vertical Integration in the Airline Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(5), pages 1831-49, December.

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