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Information asymétrique, contraintes de liquidité et investissement

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  • Bascuñán, Mauricio

    (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal)

  • Garcia, René

    (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal)

  • Poitevin, Michel

    (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal)

Abstract

This paper studies the impact of financial market structure on investment decisions by firms using company panel data from six countries: Germany and Japan, where borrower-lender relationships are more of a long-term nature, Canada, France, United Kingdom, and United States, where financial markets tend to favour short-term relationships. Market imperfections between lenders and borrowers should be reduced in financial Systems of the long-term type, allowing firms to rely less on their own cash flows to finance their investments. Our estimation results confirm that in Germany and Japan, coefficients of cash flows and stocks in investment equations are either of small magnitude or not statistically different from zero. Notwithstanding the financial system prevailing in a country, these imperfections should affect more small firms than large firms. Our results show that small firms make more use of their cash flows to finance investment, not only in the United States but also in Japan, which offers more convincing evidence supporting the assumption of financial constraints. Le présent article étudie l’influence de la structure des marchés financiers sur les décisions d’investissement des entreprises à partir de données longitudinales d’entreprises de six pays : l’Allemagne et le Japon d’une part, où s’établissent plutôt des relations de long terme entre prêteurs et emprunteurs, le Canada, les États-Unis, la France et le Royaume-Uni d’autre part, dont les marchés financiers tendent à privilégier les relations de court terme. Les systèmes financiers qui favorisent les relations de long terme devraient réduire les imperfections de marché et permettre donc aux entreprises de moins recourir aux fonds autogénérés pour financer leurs investissements. Les résultats de nos estimations confirment qu’en Allemagne et au Japon, les coefficients des variables de flux et de stocks de liquidités dans les équations d’investissement sont soit faibles soit statistiquement non différents de zéro. Par ailleurs, indépendamment du système financier d’un pays, ces mêmes imperfections devraient se manifester plus dans les petites entreprises que dans les grandes entreprises. Nos résultats montrent effectivement que les petites firmes ont davantage recours à leurs propres fonds pour financer leurs investissements, non seulement aux États-Unis mais encore au Japon, ce qui constitue une confirmation plus convaincante de l’hypothèse des contraintes financières.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 71 (1995)
Issue (Month): 4 (décembre)
Pages: 398-420

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:71:y:1995:i:4:p:398-420

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  1. Bond, Stephen & Meghir, Costas, 1994. "Dynamic Investment Models and the Firm's Financial Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(2), pages 197-222, April.
  2. Ambarish, Ramasastry & John, Kose & Williams, Joseph, 1987. " Efficient Signalling with Dividends and Investments," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 321-43, June.
  3. Hayashi, Fumio, 1982. "Tobin's Marginal q and Average q: A Neoclassical Interpretation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 213-24, January.
  4. J. A. Hausman, 1976. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Working papers 185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  5. Oliner, Stephen D & Rudebusch, Glenn D, 1992. "Sources of the Financing Hierarchy for Business Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 643-54, November.
  6. Jappelli, Tullio & Pischke, Jörn-Steffen & Souleles, Nicholas, 1995. "Testing for Liquidity Constraints in Euler Equations with Complementary Data Sources," CEPR Discussion Papers 1138, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Elston, Julie, 1997. "A Comparison of Empirical Investment Equations using Company Panel Data for France, Germany, Belgium and the UK," Working Papers 981, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  8. de Meza, David & Webb, David C, 1987. "Too Much Investment: A Problem of Asymmetric Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 281-92, May.
  9. Fabio Schiantarelli & Xiaoqiang Hu, 1994. "Investment and Financing Constraints: A Switching Regression Approach Using U.S. Firm Panel Data," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 284., Boston College Department of Economics.
  10. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  11. Steven Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1987. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," NBER Working Papers 2387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Garcia, Rene & Lusardi, Annamaria & Ng, Serena, 1997. "Excess Sensitivity and Asymmetries in Consumption: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(2), pages 154-76, May.
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