Industrias culturales e n ciudades españolas. Un primer acercamiento
AbstractResumen: El sector cultural constituye un elemento central en el cambio hacia las sociedades post-industriales. Pero en particular, constituye un sector crucial en el desarrollo de las ciudades y la competitividad en el sistema urbano. En este marco, se analiza la presencia y distribución de las industrias culturales en municipios españoles de 50 mil y más habitantes. Para ello se han utilizado y validado diferentes fuentes de datos a nivel municipal. Posteriormente se han calculado indicadores para 145 ciudades, lo que permite obtener una visión de la importancia del sector cultural y tipos específicos de éste en el sistema urbano español. Abstract: Nowadays the cultural sector is a crucial element of change to post-industrial societies. More concretely, it is a crucial sector promoting growth and competitiveness in the urban system at the national scale as well as at the international scale. This is clearly point out by the literature of creative cities. In this framework, this article analyzes the presence and distribution of ‘cultural industries’ in Spanish municipalities up to 50.000 inhabitants. In order to do it, different sources of data available at the municipal level in Spain have been used. Diverse categories of cultural industries have been selected according to criteria established by UNESCO, EUROSTAT or the Spanish Department of Culture. Index of distribution, concentration, density, extension and relevance has been computed among 145 cities. These analyses show the importance of cultural sector and specific sectors in the Spanish urban system identifying, within the cities noted for their cultural activity, three types: creative, artistic and entertainment, the second type the most important in Spain. Basically, the analyses of these indexes show specific pattern of localisation –or ecology- of-cultural industries in urban Spain according to tow main criteria o logics: ‘concentration’ and ‘functional specialization\'. The first means that large cities concentrate a high share of cultural industries showing a greater level of diversification. Thus, this logic shows the importance of the urban hierarchy in order to explain concentration and diversification of activities, in our case, those included in the cultural sector. The second logic means differences in the importance of different sectors and functions among municipalities, that is to say, specialization rather than concentration. The pattern of specialization make possible to delineated three main types of cities: creative, artistic and entertainment. The first one is specialized on ‘pre-distribution functions’, as well as on the audiovisual sector, showing a positive relationship with population size and concentration. Artist and entertainment types are more oriented toward cultural consumption, without any especial relationship with population size or concentration. This typology could show that two main orientations exist according to the relevance of different cultural and creative industries in cities or if you will, logic: consumption (museums, scenic spaces,..) and creativity (mainly, the audiovisual industry). This second one shows a clear relationship with urban hierarchy, at least, more than the first one. These differences could be explained by the orientation of cultural policies, in addition to economic benefits of concentration in localization strategies of firms.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Universidades Públicas de Andalucía in its journal Revista de Estudios Regionales.
Volume (Year): 02 (2012)
Issue (Month): ()
Industrias culturales; Industrias creativas; Equipamientos culturales; Ciudades creativas; Cultural industries; Creative industries; Cultural amenities; Creative cities;
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- R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
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