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Población andaluza mayor y dependiente: Metodología para su recuento y análisis del mismo

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  • Rafael Gobernado Arribas
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    Abstract

    Resumen: Calcular la proporción de población dependiente de un territorio no es fácil, pero es necesario. Esa proporción es la clave para determinar la cantidad de personas que se necesita para ayudar a tal población. A partir de la pregunta 19 de la Encuesta de condiciones de vida de las personas mayores del Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (2006) se ha propuesto una metodología para obtener una visión general de la proporción de personas que necesitan ayuda para realizar un conjunto de actividades de la vida cotidiana. Según ella, por ejemplo, el 3,6 por ciento de los mayores de sesenta y cinco años andaluces sufre un alto grado de dependencia. Se propone también una tipología de actividades cotidianas que exige a su vez un tipo diferente de ayuda. Abstract: Calculate the proportion of dependent population of a territory is not easy, but necessary. This proportion is the key to determining the number of people needed to help the dependent population. From question 19 of the Encuesta de condiciones de vida de las personas mayores (Survey of living conditions of older people) of Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Center for Sociological Research) (2006) we have proposed a methodology to obtain an overview of the proportion of people who need help with a set of activities everyday life. It also proposes a typology of everyday activities that in turn requires a different kind of help. The proportion of the population dependent on Andalusia is greater than the proportion of the sample from Spain. In Andalusia has some sort of dependence, i.e. can not perform for himself the eighteen activities, 30.4 percent of older respondents sixty-five years, while in Spain as a whole is the 24.2. These respondents were classified dependent down into four categories according to level of dependency. Well, the group of respondents with the highest level of dependence in Andalusia comprises 3.6 percent of respondents, and the rest of Spain is only 1.1. The unit is largely related to age and sex. The older one has, the more likely you need help to perform the tasks in question. This propensity is seen in the two samples in the national and the Andalusian. The difference is that the proportion of dependents Andalusian is always higher in any age group than in all of Spain. Meanwhile, women report ever greater need for help than men, also in the two samples and, in the same way, the dependence is greater in the Andalusian women in the other. So are the demographic, age and sex, which may explain the Andalusian worse. The educational level is the variable that can get into the explanation of the difference between the samples. In both samples shows that the lower educational levels are higher dependency ratios. The discrepancy between the sample and national Andalusian in the different distribution of the population in the educational structure. In Andalusia, the proportion of over sixty-five who are illiterate or do not have any studies amounted to 53 percent of respondents, while the same category in Spain as a whole remains at 20.4. Therein lies the explanation of the Andalusian worse. The low level of education of this population is an indicator of low socio-economic development that lived these cohorts compared with the rest of Spain. One can speak of the Andalusia of 30 or 40 years ago as a more traditional, little modernized. Since the proportion of the population needing help with each of the activities of the questionnaire question 19 has built a hierarchy of eighteen activities according to their difficulty. Task hierarchies of both samples are very similar. From these hierarchies activities are classified into two types: first, those committed outside the home and are the most difficult (there is a higher proportion of respondents who need help in their implementation), and second, the tasks performed indoors and are most people interviewed declared to perform without assistance. In both ordinations Andalusian sample presents results worse than the national sample. Have some degree of reliance on tasks outside the home, 24.1 percent of the sample Andalusian, while the national is 21.5. The greater reliance group to execute those tasks away from home in Andalucia plus 6.2 percent of all respondents, in the sample of Spain, is 4.9. This is, again, the task force more difficult for the population interviewed. Males of both shows need much less support for activities outside the home than women. Is noteworthy however that in Andalusia the disproportion between the sexes is much greater than in all of Spain. Only 10 percent of men Andalusian declare any dependency on these tasks, while the corresponding figure for women is 34.4 percent. Is a distance of 24.2 percentage points. The total sample of Spain does not exhibit such disparate results between sexes, the separation is by 16.7 percentage points. This leads us to believe that the dependence in question has more to do with traditional cultural elements with strictly individual causes. The data analysis tasks in the house supports the idea of the importance of culture as a causal mechanism of dependence. The results of the difficulties of these other tasks are very different from the others. First, the difference between the samples is much smaller: the Andalusians who suffer some kind of dependency is now 21.4 percent, the total in Spain, 19.5. The group of respondents Andalusian more severe level of dependence is 3.3 percent, the sample of all of Spain is very close, 2.1. Such an approach of the other Andalusian Spanish is because in the work of women indoors are grown, are much more independent, while men seem to shrink to such tasks. The difference here between men and women stay in Andalusia 11.4 percentage points in the case of the national poll is nothing more than 6 points. There is a great contradiction. 90 percent of men are completely independent Andalusian tasks outside the home, it is difficult for those over sixty-five. However, in tasks in which are the easiest in theory, the proportion of fully independent Andalusian men decreases to 85.2 percent. The opposite is seen in Andalusian women: the fully independent tasks outside the home (66.4 percent) are less than the corresponding tasks within (73.8 percent). But these data of the female population are expected from the degree of difficulty of such tasks. Not so with the population of the Spanish sample. Both men and women are more independent in the easy tasks (those inside the house) in difficult tasks (outside the home). The explanation of the responses of those interviewed Andalusian will therefore be sought in the traditional culture of his time.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Universidades Públicas de Andalucía in its journal Revista de Estudios Regionales.

    Volume (Year): 01 (2012)
    Issue (Month): ()
    Pages: 175-202

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    Handle: RePEc:rer:articu:v:01:y:2012:p:175-202

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    Related research

    Keywords: Dependencia; Actividades cotidianas; Desarrollo socio-económico; Género; Dependence; Daily activities; Economic development; Gender;

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