Calculating shadow wages for family labour in agriculture : An analysis for Spanish citrus fruit farms
AbstractThis paper deals with the calculation of shadow wages for family labour in agriculture. Using the existence of a duality between input distance and cost functions, we use the former to derive individual labour shadow prices for a sample of Spanish citrus fruit producers. Our results show that the average shadow price representing the opportunity cost of family labour employed onfarm, is lower than the average market wage rate paid for hired labour. We relate this finding to a strategy of outsourcing of many growing tasks that is currently pursued by farmers to overcome the problems posed by a suboptimal farm size.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by INRA Department of Economics in its journal Cahiers d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales.
Volume (Year): 75 (2005)
Issue (Month): ()
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 4, Allée Adolphe Bobierre, CS 61103, 35011 Rennes Cedex
Web page: http://www.sae2.inra.fr/Departement-Recherches/Recherches-departement-SAE2/Raestud/%28key%29/3
More information through EDIRC
shadow prices; duality; distance functions; on-farm labour opportunity cost; outsourcing;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fare, Rolf & Knox Lovell, C. A., 1978. "Measuring the technical efficiency of production," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 150-162, October.
- Elhorst, J Paul, 1994. "Firm-Household Interrelationships on Dutch Dairy Farms," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 21(2), pages 259-76.
- Fare, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna, 1990. "A distance function approach to price efficiency," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 123-126, October.
- repec:cup:cbooks:9780521802567 is not listed on IDEAS
- Schmitt, Gunther, 1991. "Why Is the Agriculture of Advanced Western Economies Still Organized by Family Farms? Will This Continue to Be So in the Future?," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 18(3-4), pages 443-58.
- Isabelle Piot-Lepetit & Dominique Vermersch, 1998. "Pricing Organic Nitrogen Under The Weak Disposability Assumption: An Application to the French Pig Sector," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(1), pages 85-99.
- Madior Fall & Thierry Magnac, 2002.
"How valuable is on-farm work to farmers?,"
Research Unit Working Papers
0204, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
- Jacobsen, S. E., 1972. "On Shephard's duality theorem," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 458-464, June.
- Nigel Key & Elisabeth Sadoulet & Alain De Janvry, 2000. "Transactions Costs and Agricultural Household Supply Response," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 245-259.
- Christensen, Laurits R & Jorgenson, Dale W & Lau, Lawrence J, 1973. "Transcendental Logarithmic Production Frontiers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 55(1), pages 28-45, February.
- Reig-Martinez, Ernest & Picazo-Tadeo, Andres J., 2004. "Analysing farming systems with Data Envelopment Analysis: citrus farming in Spain," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 17-30, October.
- Coggins, Jay S. & Swinton, John R., 1996. "The Price of Pollution: A Dual Approach to Valuing SO2Allowances," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 58-72, January.
- Andres Picazo-Tadeo & Ernest Reig-Martinez, 2006. "Agricultural externalities and environmental regulation: evaluating good practice in citrus production," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(11), pages 1327-1334.
- Jacoby, Hanan G, 1993.
"Shadow Wages and Peasant Family Labour Supply: An Econometric Application to the Peruvian Sierra,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 903-21, October.
- Jacoby, H.G., 1990. "Shadow Wages And Peasant Family Labor Supply; An Econometric Application To The Peruvian Sierra," Papers 73, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- Francesc Hernández Sancho & Andrés Picazo & Ernest Reig Martínez, 1999. "- Shadow Prices And Distance Functions: An Analysis For Firms Of The Spanish Ceramic Pavements Industry," Working Papers. Serie EC 1999-19, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Hailu, Atakelty & Veeman, Terrence S., 2000. "Environmentally Sensitive Productivity Analysis of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry, 1959-1994: An Input Distance Function Approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 251-274, November.
- Mercedes Beltrán-Esteve & Andrés J. Picazo-Tadeo & Ernest Reig-Martínez, 2012. "What makes a citrus farmer go organic? Empirical evidence from Spanish citrus farming," Working Papers 1205, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nathalie Saux-Nogues).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.