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Circulation routière et nuisances environnementales Quelle place pour l'analyse économique ?

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  • Pascal Delisle
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    Abstract

    [eng] The post-war period expanded the North-american pattern of massive road transport to the whole OECD area. Some aspects of this transformation are now under issue, particularly, environmental costs. Following neoclassical and welfare economics, governments are now interpreting these costs as externalities, preventing the economy from reaching a sustainable development path. The utilitarian, individualistic and static foundations of this approach suffer strong weaknesses. Nevertheless, compared to alternative available methods, cautious use of valuation tools and internalization mechanisms can certainly improve the environmental sustainability of transport policy decisions. In order to enforce these decisions, traditional command-and-control regulations could then be combined with promising economic incentives, once the income re-allocation issues and social inertias cleared up, as few cities and countries have already begun to experiment it. [fre] Elargissant le modèle nord-américain à la zone OCDE, l'après- guerre a donné naissance à une société de la mobilité automobile. Certains coûts de cette mutation sont aujourd'hui jugés excessifs. C'est le cas des nuisances environnementales associées aux transports par route. Dans la filiation des analyses néoclassique et du bien- être, les pouvoirs publics voient en ces nuisances des effets externes qu'il importe d'internaliser afin de garantir la soutenabilité du développement économique. Les fondements de cette approche, à savoir l'utilitarisme, l'individualisme et la statique comparative, restent discutés. Pourtant, les procédures d'évaluation et d'internalisation des coûts environnementaux constituent un progrès certain par rapport aux pratiques actuelles, lorsqu'elles sont employées avec prudence et sélectivité. Leur mise en œuvre, à condition de nepas sous-estimerles inerties socio-culturelles et les éventuels effets redistributifs, peut alors avantageusement combiner régulations traditionnelles et incitations économiques.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ofce.1996.1437
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

    Volume (Year): 59 (1996)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 135-166

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1996_num_59_1_1437

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1996.1437
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ofce

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