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Les prêts contingents aux étudiants dans les pays de l'OCDE

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  • Denis Maguain
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    Abstract

    [eng] Students Income Contingent Loans in OECD Countries. Investment in higher education is important for economic growth. Now, although most of European countries (including France) invest about 1 % of GDP in Higher Education, United State (and Canada) devote to it about 2.5 % of GDP (OCDE [2004]). We also point out that Higher Education spending tend to be more important in countries where a substantial part of the funding is private, originating from students and their families or from donations (alumnies) or enterprises. The difficulties in Higher Education funding that arose in some developed countries during the 90 s, combined with a persistent inequality of opportunities, have conducted some of them to implement reforms. Those reforms have in common some core characteristics that lean on Income Contingent Loans in compensation of the introduction of higher tuition fees. This note presents in details some of theses reforms introduced in United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. We also present the case of Sweden, where students loan schemes exist since long although access to Higher Education is totally free in this country. [fre] Denis Maguain Les prêts contingents aux étudiants dans les pays de l'OCDE. D'après la littérature économique, l'éducation supérieure a un impact favorable sur la croissance économique d'un pays. Or, alors que la plupart des pays européens (dont la France) consacrent environ 1 % du PIB à l'éducation supérieure, les Etats-Unis (et le Canada) y consacrent environ 2,5 % du PIB (OCDE [2004]). On constate également que les dépenses d'enseignement supérieur tendent à être plus importantes dans les pays où le financement n'est pas seulement public mais est également d'origine privée, que ce soit par les étudiants et leurs familles ou par des donations de particuliers et d'entreprises. Les difficultés de financement de l'enseignement supérieur qu'ont connu (et connaissent encore) certains pays développés, conjuguées au constat dune inégalité des chances persistante des étudiants en matière d'entrée et de réussite dans l'enseignement supérieur, ont conduit certains de ces pays à mettre en place des réformes du financement de leur système d'enseignement supérieur. Ces réformes présentent certaines caractéristiques semblables, s'appuyant généralement sur l'introduction de dispositifs de prêts contingents aux revenus futurs des étudiants en contrepartie de droits d'inscription relativement élevés, ceci dans le contexte d'une sélection à l'entrée rigoureuse à l'université. Cet article présente de façon détaillée certaines de ces réformes, introduites par le Royaume-Uni, l'Australie et la Nouvelle- Zélande. Le cas de la Suède est également analysé en raison de l'existence d'un dispositif de prêts même si, dans ce pays, l'accès aux études supérieures est gratuit.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 20 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 51-71

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2005_num_20_2_1572

    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2005.1572
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/rfeco

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    Cited by:
    1. Denis Maguain, 2007. "Les rendements de l'éducation en comparaison internationale," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 180(4), pages 87-106.

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