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Le biais technologique fondements, mesures et tests empiriques

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  • Marie-Claire Villeval
  • Khaled Bouabdallah
  • Nathalie Greenan

Abstract

[fre] Au cours des années trente, les théoriciens de la croissance ont défini la neutralité du progrès technique en considérant seulement deux facteurs de production homogènes : le travail et le capital. Aujourd'hui, cette notion sert à étudier l'impact des nouvelles technologies sur le changement de la structure de la demande de travail, dans une perspective plutôt micro-économique. Les nouvelles technologies élimineraient du travail non qualifié au profit des salariés les plus formés. Les résultats des études empiriques anglo-saxonnes et françaises sont toutefois peu concordants quant à la responsabilité directe de l'innovation dans la déformation des structures de salaire et d'emploi. Cet article a pour objectif d'analyser les fondements théoriques et méthodologiques de l'évaluation empirique du biais technologique afin d'identifier si ces écarts prennent leur source dans des différences de mesure, de sources statistiques, de niveaux d'observation ou s'ils doivent être rattachés à des spécificités des marchés du travail nationaux. [eng] The neutrality of technical progress has been defined in the 30s in the framework of the macroeconomic analysis of growth and distribution, which considered only two aggregate inputs : labour and capital. Current analyses focus now on the impact of new technologies on the changing structure of labour demand, mainly from a microeconomic perspective. The new information and communication technologies would be biased toward skilled labour. However, the empirical evidence of a direct influence of technical progress on the changing structure of skills and wages in France and the United States is far from being perfectly converging. This paper aims at investigating the theoretical and methodological foundations of the empirical evaluation of technological bias in order to trace whether these discrepancies are due to differences in measures, in data sources, in the level of observation or to the specificity of each national labour market.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/rfeco.1999.1076
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/rfeco_0769-0479_1999_num_14_1_1076/rfeco_0769-0479_1999_num_14_1_1076.pdf?mode=light
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 14 (1999)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 171-227

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1999_num_14_1_1076

Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1999.1076
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/rfeco

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Cited by:
  1. Nathalie Greenan & Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2005. "Informatique, organisation du travail et interactions sociales," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 387(1), pages 35-63.
  2. Jacques Mairesse & Nathalie Greenan & Agnes Topiol-Bensaid, 2001. "Information Technology and Research and Development Impacts on Productivity and Skills: Looking for Correlations on French Firm Level Data," NBER Working Papers 8075, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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