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Comment expliquer la présence d'organisations à but non lucratif dans une économie de marché?: l'apport de la théorie économique

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  • Bernard Enjolras
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    Abstract

    [fre] Le secteur à but non lucratif constitue un secteur non négligeable de notre économie qui reste cependant sous exploré tant sur le plan empirique que théorique. De récents travaux anglo-saxons et français permettent de mieux cerner cette réalité. Le programme de recherche du secteur à but non lucratif traite deux types de problématiques : la problématique de l'origine (pourquoi les organisations à but non lucratifs existent-elles?) et la problématique du comportement (en quoi se différencient-elles d'autres formes d'organisations?). Le présent article présente dans un premier temps les contributions théoriques majeures qui traitent de la question des origines. Cinq contributions sont envisagées: la première considère les organisations non lucratives comme producteur de biens publics. Un second groupe d'analyses explique la différence entre organisation non lucrative et organisation lucrative en recourant à la notion d'asymétrie informationnelle et aux échecs contractuels qui s'en suivent. Le troisième type de contribution fait porter l'accent sur la fonction entrepreunariale à l'origine des organisations non lucratives. Une synthèse des précédentes approches a été réalisée autour de la notion de « partie prenante » (stakeholder). Par ailleurs les analyses en termes de bien public et d'échecs contractuels ont fait l'objet d'une critique à partir de l'approche en terme d'échec philanthropique. Dans un second temps une approche socio-économique des organisations non lucratives est avancée à partir du problème de la coordination de l'action. On peut en effet considérer que les institutions sont créées afin d'aider les agents économiques à résoudre les problèmes récurrents de coordination auxquels ils ont à faire face. Dans cette perspective l'organisation non lucrative peut être comprise comme un mécanisme de compromis permettant de gérer les tensions entre quatres logiques de coordination : les logiques marchandes, domestiques, solidaires et civiques. [eng] The nonprofit sector constitute an important part of our economy but remains under-explored at empirical level as at theoritecal level. Recent re- searchs allow us to better understand this reality. The nonprofit sector research program deals with two kinds of problems: the problem of origins (why nonprofit organizations do exist?) and the problem of behavior (in what are they different of other kind of organizations?). This paper presents in a first step the main theoritical contributions dealing with the origins problem. Five contributions are presented: the first one considers nonprofit organizations as public goods producers. A second cluster of theory analyse the difference between nonprofit and forprofit organizations using the concepts of informational asymetry and contract failures. A third sort of contribution insists on the entreprenarial function which is at the starting point of these organizations. A synthesis of these approaches has been attempted aroud the notion of stakeholder. In other respects the analysis in terms of public goods and in terms of contract failure have been criticized from the point of view of philanthropic failure. In a second step a socio-economic approach of nonprofit organizations is put foreward starting from the problem of coordination of actions. It is indeed possible to considerate that institutions are created in order to help economic actors to solve the reçurent coordination problems they have to face. In this perspective the nonprofit organization can be understood as a compromise mechanism allowing to manage tensions between four logics of coordination: the market, domestic, solidaristic and civic logics.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/rfeco.1995.990
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/rfeco_0769-0479_1995_num_10_4_990/rfeco_0769-0479_1995_num_10_4_990.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 10 (1995)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 37-66

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1995_num_10_4_990

    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1995.990
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/rfeco

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