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Comparer les marchés du travail

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  • Pierre Morin
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    [fre] Comparer les marchés du travail. . La performance française en termes de taux de chômage a été très décevante, et le demeure. Le but de cette conférence est de discuter des facteurs explicatifs souvent présentés comme étant à la racine du problème. Le texte rappelle d'abord plusieurs faits importants, telle la fin de la période de rattrapage en Europe, ou certains changements importants dans la composition de la force de travail, et comment certains pays les ont absorbés. Il discute alors l'argument de « manque de flexibilité », au sens habituel du terme, et cherche à montrer que les preuves de sa pertinence ne sont pas aussi convaincantes qu'il serait nécessaire pour une question de ce type. D'un autre côté, la responsabilité d'une rigueur excessive de la politique économique manque de pouvoir de conviction. Nous sommes seulement sûrs de ce qui s'est passé au début des années 1990. L'article présente alors quelques faits, tel le manque de formation de la main-d'œuvre française, particulièrement celle de sa fraction qui a subi la période la plus dure de la crise. Il semble qu'il n'y ait pas eu de cohérence entre des objectifs sociaux justement ambitieux, et les moyens de les garantir, moyens qui ne concernent pas seulement les rela­tions du travail. L'article insiste également sur l'importance des hétérogénéités non observées dans l'analyse comparative des marchés du travail. Les ignorer peut être trompeur de deux façons : exagérer l'importance des « rigidités », ou mal caractériser les conséquences négatives de certaines d'entre elles. [eng] Comparions of labour markets. . The labour market performances of the French economy have traditionally been very poor. The aim of this conference is to review some explaining factors often presented as being ai the root of the problem. The paper first recalls some important facts, such as the end of the "catch-up" period in Europe, or some changes in the composition of working force, and how some countries absorbed them. It discusses the arguments of "lack of flexibility", in the usual accepted mean-ing of the word, and argues that the proofs of their relevance are not always as convincing as what wouldbe neededin such case. On the otherhand, the argument of excessive tightness of economie policy is equally not convincing, and we are only sure of what occurred in the early ninettes. The paper then highlights some facts, such as the lack of formation of the French labour force, especially its fraction which endured the hardest period of the crisis. It seems that there was no coherence between truly ambitious objectives (such a high level of minimum wage), and the means to achieve them, which are not concentrated in the field of the labour relations. The paper also emphasizes the probable importance of unobserved hetero-geneities in the comparative analysis of labour markets. To ignore them would be misleading in two ways: first, to exaggerate the general importance of rigidities, second to misrepresent the negative impact of some of them.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

    Volume (Year): 53 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 345-390

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2002_num_53_3_410410

    Note: DOI:10.2307/3502970
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/reco

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