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Les sources de protéines pour l'alimentation animale : bilan général de l'approvisionnement et apport particulier des céréales

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  • P. Gatel
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    Abstract

    [fre] Dans la couverture des besoins azotés, le bilan français fait ressortir la prépondérance des fourrages grossiers d'origine nationale. Ce sont les ruminants qui consomment le plus de matières azotées et en restituent le plus sous forme de protéines animales. L'arrêt brutal des importations de protéagineux, même s'il peut être gênant, ne met pas en danger la production animale. Une hausse des prix du tourteau (crise de 1973) entraîne une augmentation des coûts de production animale très inférieure aux variations anarchiques que connaissent les cours des produits animaux. L'approvisionnement en protéines doit être examiné dans le contexte général de la politique de production animale et non uniquement analysé en tant que problème d'alimentation. . La céréale est surtout une source d'azote pour les monogastriques (54 % des besoins). Le choix de l'une ou l'autre espèce de céréales permet une épargne de tourteaux. L'apport de fumure azotée tardive pourrait être une voie d'enrichissement du blé. Pour les porcs, on peut grâce aux céréales économiser 1/4 des tourteaux sans influencer négativement la qualité des produits obtenus. L'alimentation des ruminants dispose de solution de rechange telle que l'emploi de « céréales et urée ». . Faute, à court terme, de se dispenser des importations de soja, valorisant les atouts actuels de notre agriculture par l'exportation. [eng] Sources of Proteins for Animal Feeding-Stuffs a general survey of supply and the particular contribution of cereal crops - In the satisfaction of protein demand, the general survey for France shows up the preponderance of coarse, home-produced fodder. Ruminants are the main consumers of protein products and are also the main producers of animal protein. The sudden stoppage in protein imports, even if it is a nuisance, will not jeopardize animal production. A rise in the price of oil-cake (the 1973 crisis) leads to an increase in animal production costs that is much less than the anarchic variations in animal product prices. The protein supply must be examined in the overall context of the animal production policy and not only analyzed as a food problem. . Cereal crops are a source of protein products for non-ruminants (54 % of the demand). The choice of one or other variety of cereal makes less oil-cake necessary. The late use of nitrogen manure might be a means of improving the protein content of wheat. For pigs, by using cereals, one third of the quantity of oil-cake can be saved without having an adverse effect on the quality of the production. The feeding of ruminants can have alternative solutions such as the use of « cereals and urea ».

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ecoru.1976.2452
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ecoru_0013-0559_1976_num_116_1_2452/ecoru_0013-0559_1976_num_116_1_2452.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie rurale.

    Volume (Year): 116 (1976)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 28-33

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:recoru:ecoru_0013-0559_1976_num_116_1_2452

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecoru.1976.2452
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecoru

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