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« Socialisme municipal » contre « socialisme d'État ». Ressorts et effets du développement de la fonction publique en France et en Grande-Bretagne avant 1914

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  • Jean-Pierre Dormois
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    Abstract

    [fre] Résumé . En dépit d'une histoire politique souvent décrite comme à rebours l'une de l'autre, la constitution des bureaucraties d'État au XIXe siècle, en France et en Grande-Bretagne présente de nombreux points de rencontre. Au cours de la période 1870-1914, moment décisif de cette construction, l'intervention croissante des pouvoirs publics suggéra aux économistes libéraux que la France glissait insensiblement sur la pente du « socialisme d'État ». En Grande-Bretagne à la même époque, la création de « services publics » par les collectivités locales dans les grandes villes, donna naissance à l'expression de « socialisme municipal ». La comparaison des indicateurs en termes de moyens et de résultat révèle que pour des populations du même ordre, les deux États obtenaient des résultats semblables pour des fonctions identiques à la veille de 1914. La différence en termes de productivité s'explique essentiellement par l'accroissement plus rapide de la fonction publique en France initiée par la Troisième République, une stratégie qui devait perdurer jusqu'à la fin du XXe siècle et qui explique qu'en France, contrairement à la Grande-Bretagne, la création d'emplois publics est perçue comme partie de la politique sociale. [eng] Abstract . The article takes as a premise that today's diverging attitudes towards the role of government in Britain and France have their roots in the way modern government bureaucracies were set up at the end of the 19th Century. It attempts firstly to chart the differences between the two administrations, compare their revenue and expenditure patterns as well as the labour distribution among its various agencies. Secondly, it documents two alternative methods for measuring performance in the government sector referring to standardized areas of government activity. Indicators are then produced and analysed of the comparative performance of government employees in their various guises in terms of services rendered. Further, we explore the possibilities of calculating "value added originating in the public sector" and deriving from it indicators of labour productivity. Monetary indicators paired with indicators of activity suggest a proximity of overall performance tempered by a French bias emphasizing the role of the state as an employer expected to offer labour market relief while this tendency was limited to the councils of Britain's larger cities.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/hes.2006.2622
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/hes_0752-5702_2006_num_25_4_2622/hes_0752-5702_2006_num_25_4_2622.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 25 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 127-156

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2006_num_25_4_2622

    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2006.2622
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/hes

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