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Du « bon usage » de la clôture et de l'enfermement dans les établissements charitables aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles

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  • Marie-Claude Dinet-Lecomte
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    Abstract

    [fre] Le phénomène de clôture et d'enfermement triomphe à la fin du XVIe siècle et au XVIIe siècle sous le double effet de la Réforme catholique et de la politique de grand «renfermement des pauvres». Si l'historiographie en a souligné la convergence et la concomitance, elle n'a pas toujours saisi la complexité des motivations, l'ampleur des aspirations religieuses et surtout la place centrale occupée par les femmes dans le combat charitable. C'est pourquoi, cette contribution s'intéresse au rôle des sœurs hospitalières dans la société. À la différence des moniales, elles ne participent pas (ou si peu) à l'invasion conventuelle des villes car elles relèvent à la fois de l'Église, de l'État et des municipalités. Majoritaires dans les hôtels-Dieu, les hôpitaux et les pensionnats des villes, elles doivent concilier vie religieuse et service hospitalier. Malgré une infinité de statuts et de règles, tout est mis en œuvre pour éviter la surenchère conventuelle de certaines religieuses. La règle est constamment mitigée, il y a des degrés, des accommodements dans la clôture amplifiés dans la pratique. Les deux dernières parties consacrées aux sœurs de charité montrent que l'absence de clôture voulue par Vincent de Paul n'est pas une forme d'émancipation. Pour qu'elles ne se perdent pas dans le monde, elles sont astreintes à une totale soumission vis-à-vis de leur supérieur ecclésiastique et des administrateurs hospitaliers. L'obéissance tient lieu de clôture, le travail est une forme de prière. De là, la naissance des stéréotypes dès le XVIIIe siècle car, en dépit des apparences, beaucoup de contemporains ne pensaient pas que l'esprit de clôture fût aussi fort chez les séculières et de fait, les rapprochait des religieuses à vœux solennels. [eng] The phenomenon of seclusion and reclusion increases at the end of the XVIth century and during the XVIIth century because of the catholic Reform and the politics of « renfermement » of poor people. If the historiography has already insisted on the convergence and concomitance, it has not understood the complexity of the causes, the width of religious needs and above of all the central place set by women in the charitable struggle. Therefore, this contribution is concerned by the part of the hospital nurses in society. Contrary to the nuns, she are not involved in conventual invasion of towns because she depend on Church, State and municipalities. Majoritary in hospitals, she must accord religious life and hospital activities. In spite of many rules, all is establish to destroy the conventual wish of some sisters. The rule is continually mixted; there are many degrees, many compositions in seclusion increased by the practice. The last two parties about the sisters of charity show that the absence of seclusion wanted by Vincent de Paul is not a form of emancipation. They are ted to the ecclesiastical superior and the hospital directors so that she commit no blunder outside. Obedience is seclusion, work is a prayer. So, the beginning of stereotypes since theXVHlth century; in spite of appearances, contemporary did not think the spirit of seclusion was so strong and put the sisters of charity near nuns.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 24 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 355-372

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_3_2555

    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2005.2555
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/hes

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