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Recherche-Développement et productivité : un survol de la littérature économétrique

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Author Info

  • Jacques Mairesse
  • Pierre Mohnen

Abstract

[fre] Pour évaluer les effets des investissements de Recherche et Développement (R-D) sur la productivité des entreprises et secteurs d'activité, plusieurs approches ont été adoptées par les économètres. Même si elles relèvent d'une approche commune, peu d'études sont tout à fait comparables et les résultats dépendent dans une large mesure des types de données et des méthodes d'estimation; de nombreux progrès sont encore à faire . On trouve ainsi que les estimations en coupe sur données d'entreprises des élasticités de recherche sont en général plus élevées que les estimations temporelles. On peut espérer que l'approche (duale) en termes de fonction de coût, qui est encore très peu employée, pourra compléter et enrichir les résultats de l'approche (primale) en termes de fonction de production. . II n'en reste pas moins que la majorité des études confirme que la R-D contribue à améliorer la productivité des entreprises et des secteurs qui investissent en ce domaine ; certaines d'entrés elles montrent en outre que la R-D entraîne des effets externes favorables pour les entreprises qui appartiennent aux mêmes secteurs ou à des secteurs avoisinants. Alors que le rendement du capital physique ne dépasserait que légèrement les taux normaux sur le marché financier, le capital de recherche pourrait avoir globalement, suivant certaines études, des taux de rendement propre et social bien supérieurs. Le stock de capital de recherche est néanmoins beaucoup plus faible que celui du capital physique ; aussi sa contribution directe à la croissance d'ensemble de la productivité, pour significative qu'elle soit, reste relativement modeste. [spa] Investigación-Desarrollo y productividad. Un vuelo por encima de la literature econométrica - Acerca de la estimación del rendimiento de los gastos de Investigación y Desarrollo se adoptaron numerosos enfoques y pocos estudios son estrictamente comparables. Incluso en el marco de un mismo enfoque, los resultados dependen en una buena medida de los modelos y de los métodos de estimación. Es así como las estimaciones en corte dan tasas de rendimiento más elevadas que las estimaciones temporales y el metodo « dual » que es aún poco utilizado, proporciona resultados más significativos que el metodo « primal ». Sin embargo, la mayoría de los estudios confirman la existencia de una relación entre la productividad y la Investigación-Desarrollo: no solo la Investigación-Desarrollo mejora los resultados en el sector que la ejecuta, además esta lleva consigo efectos externos para los sectores vecinos. . Mientras que la tasa de rendimiento de capital fisico no sobre pasa sino levemente la tasa de rendimiento en el mercado financière el capital-investigación proporciona tasas de rendimiento propias y sociales de por lo menos 15% y 25% respectivamente. Pero, dada la poca importancia de los stocks de investigación, las mismas no contribuyen mucho al crecimiento de la productividad. [eng] Research and Development vs. Productivity. An Outline of Econometric Literature -. Numerous types of approach have been adopted concerning the evaluation of the returns from expenses on research and development, as well as on their effects in terms of productivity, but few studies are wholly comparable. Even within the framework of the same approach, the results depend largely on the models and the methods of evaluation. Thus, evaluations based on cross-sections produce a higher productivity rate than evaluations based on time, and the dual method, which is still seldom used, gives more meaningful results than the primal method. Most studies, however, confirm the existence of a relationship between productivity and research and development. Not only do research and development improve results in the sectors which employ them, but they also produce external effects in related sectors. . The productivity rate of physical capital is only slightly higher than the productivity rate of the financial market, but research capital produces individual and nominal productivity rates of at least 15 and 25% respectively. But given the low level of research funds, they contribute little to productivity growth.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 237 (1990)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 99-108

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1990_num_237_1_5504

Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1990.5504
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/estat

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Cited by:
  1. Raa, T. ten & Wolff, E.N., 2000. "Engines of Growth in the U.S. Economy," Discussion Paper 2000-77, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  2. Bronwyn H. Hall & Jacques Mairesse & Pierre Mohnen, 2010. "Measuring the Returns to R&D," CIRANO Working Papers 2010s-02, CIRANO.
  3. Mehdi Nekhili & Evelyne Poincelot, 2000. "La fonction R&D et la latitude managériale:une analyse théorique," Working Papers CREGO 1000303, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.
  4. Cincera, Michele, 2005. "Firms' Productivity Growth and R&D Spillovers: An Analysis of Alternative Technological Proximity Measures," CEPR Discussion Papers 4894, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Harabi, N., 1995. "Channels of R & D Spillovers: An Empirical Investigation," Papers 37, Universitat Zurich - Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Institut.
  6. M. Ishaq Nadiri, 1993. "Innovations and Technological Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 4423, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Bronwyn Hall, 2006. "R&D, productivity and market value," IFS Working Papers W06/23, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  8. Møen, Jarle & Thorsen, Helge Sandvig, 2013. "Publication bias in the returns to R&D literature," Discussion Papers 2013/12, Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics.
  9. Jacques Mairesse & Nathalie Greenan & Agnes Topiol-Bensaid, 2001. "Information Technology and Research and Development Impacts on Productivity and Skills: Looking for Correlations on French Firm Level Data," NBER Working Papers 8075, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Johansson, Börje & Lööf, Hans, 2008. "The Impact of Firm’s R&D Strategy on Profit and Productivity," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 156, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.

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