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La nature des transferts inter vivos en France : investissements humains, aides financières et transmission du patrimoine

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  • François-Charles Wolff
  • Luc Arrondel

Abstract

[eng] The Nature of Transfers Inter Vivos in France: Human Investment, Financial Aid and Assets Transmission . by Luc Arrondel et François-Charles Wolff . Two basic hypotheses are put forward to explain descendant transfer inter vivos behaviour: altruism, whereby the parents' welfare depends on their children's welfare, and exchange, whereby both generations are involved in reciprocal relations. These two types of behaviour form the basis for our study of the determinants of the different types of assistance (housing, money, loans and guarantees) and donations observed in INSEE's 1992 Financial Assets survey of a sample of 9,530 households. This analysis makes a number of original findings. Housing and cash assistance are often tantamount to investments in the children's human capital. Conversely, loans and guarantees are more akin to transfers explicable by the fact that the children often have liquidity constraints. Contrary to the predictions of the altruist model, donation amounts increase with recipients' incomes. This practice consequently looks like an anticompensatory transfer. . Our findings also confirm certain important conclusions by previous French studies, i.e. the complementarity and transmissibility of transmission practices. Assistance often appears to be complementary, at least for some of the types. For example, supporting households often give cash in addition to housing aid or loans. We also find highly transmissible donation and assistance practices: people give more often if they have been given to and help more often and more readily in the same way if they have been helped. [fre] La nature des transferts inter vivos en France : investissements humains, aides financières et transmission du . patrimoine par Luc Arrondel et François-Charles Wolff . Deux hypothèses fondamentales sont avancées pour expliquer les comportements de transferts inter vivos descendants : l' altruisme qui fait dépendre le bien-être des parents de celui de leurs enfants, et Y échange où les deux générations sont impliquées dans des relations de réciprocité. À partir ce ces deux types de comportements, nous étudions les déterminants des différentes aides (logement, argent, prêt, caution) et des donations recensées dans l'enquête "Actifs financiers" de l'Insee réalisée en 1992 sur un échantillon de 9530 ménages. Cette analyse met en évidence plusieurs résultats originaux. Les aides en logement et en argent s'apparentent souvent à des investissements dans le capital humain des enfants. Par contre, les prêts d'argent et la caution correspondent davantage à des transferts qui peuvent être expliqués par le fait que les enfants sont souvent contraints par la liquidité. Contrairement aux prédictions du modèle altruiste, le montant des donations augmente avec les revenus des bénéficiaires et cette pratique apparaît en conséquence comme un transfert anticompensatoire. . Nos résultats confirment également certaines conclusions importantes de travaux français antérieurs à savoir la complémentarité et la transmissibilité des pratiques de transmission. Les aides apparaissent souvent complémentaires, au moins pour certaines d'entre elles. Les ménages aideurs accompagnent par exemple souvent l'aide en logement ou le prêt d'un versement d'argent. Nous observons aussi une forte transmissibilité des pratiques pour la donation et les aides : on donne plus souvent si l'on est donataire, on aide plus fréquemment et de préférence sous la même forme si l'on a été aidé.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

Volume (Year): 135 (1998)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 1-27

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1998_num_135_4_5920

Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1998.5920
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Arrondel, Luc & Laferrere, Anne, 2001. "Taxation and wealth transmission in France," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 3-33, January.
  2. François-Charles Wolff, 2000. "Les transferts versés aux enfants et aux parents : altruisme ou échange intertemporel?," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 142(1), pages 67-91.
  3. Mauro Baranzini, 2005. "Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 58(233-234), pages 109-172.
  4. Arrondel, L. & Masson, A., 1999. "Family Transfers Involving Three Generations," DELTA Working Papers 1999-16, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  5. Jellal, Mohamed & Wolff, Francois-Charles, 2002. "Cultural evolutionary altruism: theory and evidence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 241-262, June.
  6. Jellal, Mohamed & wolff, François charles, 2005. "Dynamique des transferts intergénérationnels et effet de démonstration
    [Dynamics of Intergenerational Transfers and the Demonstration Effect]
    ," MPRA Paper 38419, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Stefan Hochguertel & Henry Ohlsson, 2000. "Compensatory inter vivos gifts," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_319, Levy Economics Institute.
  8. Mauro Baranzini, 2005. "Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 58(233-234), pages 109-172.
  9. Nordblom, Katarina & Ohlsson, Henry, 2002. "BEQUESTS, GIFTS, AND EDUCATION Swedish evidence on parents’ transfer behavior," Working Papers in Economics 69, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  10. Mohamed Jellal & François-Charles Wolff, 2003. "Solidarités familiales par la démonstration," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 54(4), pages 785-810.
  11. Jellal, Mohamed & wolff, François charles, 2002. "Altruistic bequests with inherited tastes," MPRA Paper 38447, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Barnet-Verzat, Christine & Wolff, Francois-Charles, 2002. "Motives for pocket money allowance and family incentives," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 339-366, June.

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