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Capital humain et croissance économique : une revue de la littérature

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  • Kinvi D.A. Logossah
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    Abstract

    [eng] Human Capital and Economic Growth, . by Kinvi D.A. Logossah.. . This paper sets out to review the theory of human capital while examining its empirical validity. It shows that the traditional hypothesis whereby education is an investment that increases individual efficiency and thus productivity and gains has been enlarged by various criticisms such as filter models, theories of labour market heterogeneousness, the efficient wages model, and domination, discrimination and patriarchate hypotheses. Therefore, although the level of education might appear to be a reliable measurement of the qualification level (orthodox model), it could also be regarded as an indicator of potential productivity (filter model). Moreover, other factors besides education influence productivity and individual gains. These are mainly seniority and experience and, more generally, the characteristics of the labour demand (theories of labour market heterogeneousness, the efficient wages model, and domination, discrimination and patriarchate theories). The analysis of human capital continues and is taking diverse routes. It has been greatly enhanced by recent studies on endogenous growth. [ger] Humankapital und Wirtschaftswachstum von,. Kinvi D.A. Logossah.. . In diesem Artikel soil eine Bestandsaufhahme der Humankapitaltheorie unter gleichzeitiger Prüfung ihres empirischen Wertes versucht werden. Es wird aufgezeigt, daß die herkömmliche Hypothèse, der zufolge die Bildung eine Investition darstellt, die die individuelle Effizienz und somit die Produktivität und die Gewinne steigert, durch zahlreiche Kritiken erweitert wurde, wie beispielsweise die Filter-Modelle, die Theorien der Heterogenität des Arbeitsmarktes, das Modell der effizienten Löhne, die Hypothesen der Dominanz, der Dislmminierung und des Patriarchats. Wenn das Bildungsniveau als zuverlässige Messung des Qualifîkationsgrades (orthodoxes Modell) erscheint, kann es somit jedoch auch als Indikator der potentiellen Produktivität (Filter-Modell) betrachtet werden. Zusätzlich zur Bildung beeinflussen im übrigen noch weitere Faktoren die Produktivität und die individuellen Gewinne, insbesondere die Dauer der Betriebszugehörigkeit und die Berufserfahrung oder ganz allgemein die Merkmale der Arbeitsnachfrage (Theorien der Heterogenität des Arbeitsmarktes, Modell der effizienten Löhne, Theorien der Dominanz, der Diskriminierung, des Patriarchats). Die Analyse des Humankapitals wird fortgesetzt, wobei unterschiedliche Wege eingeschlagen werden. Dank den jüngsten Untersuchungen über das endogène Wachstum konnte sie eine beträchtliche Weiterentwicklung verzeichnen. [spa] Capital humano y crecimiento económico, . por Kinvi D.A. Logossah.. . Este artículo propone una revisión de la teoría del capital humano y examina su validez empírica. Se muestra que la hipótesis traditional según la cual la educación es una inversión que aumenta la eficacia individual y por lo tante también la productividad y las ganancias se ha extendido a través de numerosas críticas como las que se desprenden de los modelos del filtro y de salarios eficientes, o aquellas que derivan de las teorías de la heterogeneidad del mercado de trabajo y de las hipótesis de la dominación, de la discriminación y del patriarcado. Así, si el nivel de educación puede aparecer como una medida fiable del nivel de calificación (modelo ortodoxo), puede también ser interpretado como un indicador de productividad potential (modelo del filtro). Por otro lado, además de la educación, otros factores influyen sobre la productividad y las ganancias individuales: cabe destacar la antigüedad y la experiencia, o más generalmente las características de la demanda de trabajo (teorías de la heterogeneidad del mercado de trabajo, modelo de salarios eficientes, teorías de la dominación, de la discriminación, del patriarcado...) El análisis del capital humano se prolonga en diversas direcciones. Se observa un notable enriquecimiento del mismo con las recientes contribuciones sobre el crecimiento endógeno. [fre] Capital humain et croissance économique, . par Kinvi D.A. Logossah.. . Cet article essaie de faire le point sur la théorie du capital humain tout en examinant sa validité empirique. Il montre que l'hypothèse traditionnelle selon laquelle l'éducation est un investissement qui accroît l'efficacité individuelle et donc la productivité et les gains, s'est élargie au travers de critiques nombreuses tels que les modèles du filtre, les théories de l'hétérogénéité du marché du travail, le modèle des salaires efficients, les hypothèses de la domination, de la discrimination, du patriarcat. Ainsi, si le niveau d'éducation peut apparaître comme une mesure fiable du niveau de qualification (modèle orthodoxe), il peut aussi être regardé comme un indicateur de productivité potentielle (modèle du filtre) ; par ailleurs, en plus de l'éducation, d'autres facteurs influent sur la productivité et les gains individuels, notamment l'ancienneté et l'expérience, ou plus généralement les caractéristiques de la demande de travail, (théories de l'hétérogénéité du marché du travail, modèle des salaires efficients, théories de la domination, de la discrimination, du patriarcat)... L'analyse du capital humain se poursuit et emprunte des voies diversifiées. Elle connaît un enrichissement notable au travers des études récentes sur la croissance endogène.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

    Volume (Year): 116 (1994)
    Issue (Month): 5 ()
    Pages: 17-34

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1994_num_116_5_5696

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1994.5696
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