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A dynamic model of commutes

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  • Jan Rouwendal
  • Arno van der Vlist

Abstract

This paper studies the interaction between commuting, job mobility, and housing mobility. Many conventional models assume that the employment location has priority over the residential location and that the latter is adapted to the former. This implies that commutes which start with a job change will often be short lived because of a change in residential location that soon follows. It is also often supposed that the change in residential location is made with the intention to avoid long commutes. In this paper we test the empirical validity of these hypotheses. Our data are a sample of Dutch workers who report changes on the housing and labor market between 1990 and 1998. It appears from these data that both job mobility and housing mobility are often followed by repeat mobility on the same market, but also on the other market. Job mobility indeed triggers residential mobility, but the effect of residential mobility on job changes is of comparable magnitude. Moreover, both types of mobility lead to substantial repeat mobility. We specify duration models that focus on the time during which employment – housing arrangements (hence, commutes) remain unchanged. Estimation results for these models confirm that commutes which start with housing mobility and those which start with job mobility have similar characteristics with respect to induced future mobility. We are unable to find evidence supporting the hypothesis that long commutes resulting from a job change induce additional residential mobility. Another result of the analysis is that workers belonging to dual-earner households are more mobile on both markets than other workers.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Pion Ltd, London in its journal Environment and Planning A.

Volume (Year): 37 (2005)
Issue (Month): 12 (December)
Pages: 2209-2232

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Handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:37:y:2005:i:12:p:2209-2232

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References

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  1. van den Berg, Gerard J, 1992. "A Structural Dynamic Analysis of Job Turnover and the Costs Associated with Moving to Another Job," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(414), pages 1116-33, September.
  2. Henley, Andrew, 1998. "Residential Mobility, Housing Equity and the Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 414-27, March.
  3. M C Deurloo & F M Dieleman & W A V Clark, 1987. "Tenure choice in the Dutch housing market," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 19(6), pages 763-781, June.
  4. Ridder, Geert, 1990. "The Non-parametric Identification of Generalized Accelerated Failure-Time Models," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(2), pages 167-81, April.
  5. Cameron, Gavin & Muellbauer, John, 1998. "The Housing Market and Regional Commuting and Migration Choices," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 45(4), pages 420-46, September.
  6. Christopher J. Flinn & James J. Heckman, 1982. "Models for the Analysis of Labor Force Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 0857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Berg, G.J. van den & Gorter, C., 1996. "Job search and commuting time," Serie Research Memoranda 0001, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  8. van Leuvensteijn, Michiel & Koning, Pierre, 2004. "The effect of home-ownership on labor mobility in the Netherlands," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 580-596, May.
  9. Jackman, Richard & Savouri, Savvas, 1992. "Regional Migration versus Regional Commuting: The Identification of Housing and Employment Flows," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 39(3), pages 272-87, August.
  10. Arno J van der Vlist & Cees Gorter & Peter Nijkamp & Piet Rietveld, 2002. "Residential mobility and local housing-market differences," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 34(7), pages 1147-1164, July.
  11. Gronberg, Timothy J. & Reed, W. Robert, 1992. "Estimation of duration models using the Annual Housing Survey," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 311-324, May.
  12. Sueyoshi, Glenn T., 1992. "Semiparametric proportional hazards estimation of competing risks models with time-varying covariates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 51(1-2), pages 25-58.
  13. Meen, Geoffrey & Andrew, Mark, 1998. "On the Aggregate Housing Market Implications of Labour Market Change," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 45(4), pages 393-419, September.
  14. Richard Jackman & S Savouri, 1992. "Regional Migration versus Regional Commuting: The Identification of Housing and Employment Flows," CEP Discussion Papers dp0057, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  15. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Pierre Koning, 2000. "The effects of home-ownership on labour mobility in the Netherlands: Oswald's theses revisited," CPB Research Memorandum 173, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  16. Henderson, J. Vernon & Ioannides, Yannis M., 1989. "Dynamic aspects of consumer decisions in housing markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 212-230, September.
  17. Lancaster, Tony, 1979. "Econometric Methods for the Duration of Unemployment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 939-56, July.
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Cited by:
  1. Jan Rouwendal, 2004. "Search Theory and Commuting Behavior," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-017/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. Engelbert Theurl & Georg Gottholmseder, 2006. "Nicht-PendlerInnen, Binnen- und GrenzpendlerInnen - Eine sozio-ökonomische Charakterisierung am Beispiel der Pendlerregion Bodenseeraum," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 32(2), pages 209-244.
  3. Sigrun Beige & Kay Axhausen, 2012. "Interdependencies between turning points in life and long-term mobility decisions," Transportation, Springer, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 857-872, July.

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