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Polycentrism, commuting, and residential location in the San Francisco Bay area

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  • R Cervero
  • K-L Wu
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    Abstract

    The San Francisco Bay Area has taken on a distinct polycentric metropolitan form, with three tiers of hierarchical employment centers encircling downtown San Francisco, the region's primary center. In this paper it is found that polycentric development is associated with differentials in suburban and urban commute trip times: commute trips made by employees of suburban centers are shorter in duration than commute trips made by their counterparts in larger and denser urban centers. Differentials were even greater, however, with respect to commuting modal splits. Lower density, outlying employment centers averaged far higher rates of drive-alone automobile commuting and insignificant levels of transit commuting. Smaller, outlying centers were also the least self-contained, with a large number averaging twenty or more times as many external as internal commutes. The effects of housing availability and prices on the residential locational choices of those working in both urban and suburban employment centers are also investigated in this paper. Locational choices are stratified by occupational class and type of center. High housing prices in and around employment centers were found to displace workers to residences in other subregions, except in the case of professional workers in fast-growing, outlying centers. These workers were attracted to higher-priced nearby housing. In the empirical analysis significant segmentation in housing choices among workers in fast-growing suburban centers was found. This could be partly due to selective land-use policies implemented by local governments in these areas.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Pion Ltd, London in its journal Environment and Planning A.

    Volume (Year): 29 (1997)
    Issue (Month): 5 (May)
    Pages: 865-886

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    Handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:29:y:1997:i:5:p:865-886

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    Cited by:
    1. Christian L. Redfearn, 2007. "Determinacy in Urban Form: Fixed Investment & Path Dependence in Urban Areas," Working Paper, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate 8559, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    2. Richard Arnott & Alex Anas & Kenneth Small, 1997. "Urban Spatial Structure," Boston College Working Papers in Economics, Boston College Department of Economics 388., Boston College Department of Economics.
    3. Redfearn, Christian L., 2009. "Persistence in urban form: The long-run durability of employment centers in metropolitan areas," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 224-232, March.
    4. Daniel P. McMillen & Christopher Redfearn, 2007. "Estimation, Interpretation, and Hypothesis Testing for Nonparametric Hedonic House Price Functions," Working Paper, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate 8550, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    5. Carlos Augusto Olarte Bacares, 2013. "The criminality sprawl: The 'Boomerang effect' of public transport improvements," ERSA conference papers ersa13p1085, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Blanca Arellano & Montserrat Moix & Josep Roca, 2011. "Towards a New Methodology to evaluate the Urban structure of the Metropolitan Systems; Chicago and Barcelona Metropolitan Areas as Examples," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1779, European Regional Science Association.
    7. Alpkokin, Pelin & Cheung, Charles & Black, John & Hayashi, Yoshitsugu, 2008. "Dynamics of clustered employment growth and its impacts on commuting patterns in rapidly developing cities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 427-444, March.
    8. McMillen, Daniel P., 2001. "Nonparametric Employment Subcenter Identification," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 448-473, November.
    9. Redfearn, Christian L., 2007. "The topography of metropolitan employment: Identifying centers of employment in a polycentric urban area," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 519-541, May.
    10. Carlos Augusto Olarte Bacares, 2011. "Transport networks’ accessibility and jobs’ accessibility: the significance of this correlation on the configuration of labor market and their consequences on social configuration in the," ERSA conference papers ersa11p914, European Regional Science Association.
    11. Carlos Marmolejo Duarte & Carlos Aguirre Nuñez & Eduardo Chica Mejia & Claudia Perez Prieto & Jaume Masip Tresserra, 2011. "Polycentrism in the Spanish metropolitan system: an analysis for 7 metro areas," ERSA conference papers ersa11p119, European Regional Science Association.
    12. Christian L. Redfearn, 2005. "The Topography of Metropolitan Employment: Identify Centers of Employment in a Polycentric Urban Area," Working Paper, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate 8588, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    13. McMillen, Daniel P. & William Lester, T., 2003. "Evolving subcenters: employment and population densities in Chicago, 1970-2020," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 60-81, March.
    14. Redfearn, Christian L., 2009. "How informative are average effects? Hedonic regression and amenity capitalization in complex urban housing markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 297-306, May.
    15. Carlos Augusto Olarte Bacares, 2014. "Criminality spread: a "Boomerang effect" of public transport improvements?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00973408, HAL.
    16. Christian L. Redfearn, 2007. "Urban Complexity & Parameter Instability: Assessing Amenity Capitalization in the Presence of External Heterogeneity," Working Paper, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate 8563, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    17. McMillen, Daniel P. & Smith, Stefani C., 2003. "The number of subcenters in large urban areas," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 321-338, May.
    18. Clark, William A. V. & Huang, Youqin & Withers, Suzanne, 2003. "Does commuting distance matter?: Commuting tolerance and residential change," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 199-221, March.
    19. Hazans, Mihails, 2002. "Social returns to commuting in the Baltic states," ERSA conference papers ersa02p232, European Regional Science Association.
    20. Ayadi, Mohamed & Ben said, Foued, 2012. "Spatial Econometric Analysis Of Urban Expansion According To Residential Density Profile In The District Of Tunis," MPRA Paper 47436, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Joan Trullén & Rafael Boix, 2003. "Barcelona, Metropolis policentrica en red," Working Papers wpdea0303, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    22. Anne Aguiléra & Dominique Mignot, 2003. "Polycentrisme et mobilité domicile-travail," Post-Print, HAL halshs-00098666, HAL.
    23. Carlos Augusto Olarte Bacares, 2014. "Criminality spread: a "Boomerang effect" of public transport improvements?," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 14013, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.

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