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Wheat Productivity, Efficiency, and Sustainability: A Stochastic Production Frontier Analysis

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Author Info

  • Munir Ahmad

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhry

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Mohammad Iqbal

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

Abstract

The agriculture sector plays a crucial role in the overall development of the country. The sector shares about 24 percent of the GDP and employs about 44 percent of the workforce in the country. Crops sub-sector is the major contributor towards agriculture, sharing more than 53 percent of the value-added. Wheat, being the staple food of Pakistanis, carries immense importance: it contributes about 12 percent of sector value-added, is sown on about 37 percent of the total cropped area, and shares 80 percent in consumption of food grains, while its share in food grain production is around 70 percent. As primary diet, wheat alone shares about 50 percent of the total calories’ and proteins intake in Pakistan, and contributes about 8 percent of the total fat consumed [FAO (Various Issues]. Consequently, overall dietary well being of our people especially the urban and rural poor is largely dependent on the performance of wheat economy. Despite serious efforts made by the wheat breeders in developing new highyielding varieties during the past three decades, wheat production in Pakistan remained short of demand and thus import has been the only alternative to fill the gap. The present wheat requirement of the country is more than 20 million tonnes. It has been estimated that by the year 2020 wheat import would rise up to 15 million tones costing 2 billion US dollars [PARC (1996)]. The situation could worsen further if Pakistan fails to achieve a higher level of growth rate in wheat production and sustain it.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 41 (2002)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 643-663

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:41:y:2002:i:4:p:643-663

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References

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  1. George E. Battese & Sohail J. Malik & Manzoor A. Gill, 1996. "An Investigation Of Technical Inefficiencies Of Production Of Wheat Farmers In Four Districts Of Pakistan," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1-4), pages 37-49.
  2. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-32.
  3. George E. Battese & Sohail J. Malik & Sumiter Broca, 1993. "Production Functions for Wheat Farmers in Selected Districts of Pakistan: An Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function with Time-varying Inefficiency Effects," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 32(3), pages 233-268.
  4. Rejesus, Roderick M. & Heisey, Paul W. & Smale, Melinda, 1999. "Sources of Productivity Growth in Wheat: A Review of Recent Performance and Medium- to Long-Term Prospects," Economics Working Papers 7693, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
  5. Munir Ahmad & M. Ghaffar Chaudhry & Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhry, 2000. "Some Non-price Explanatory Variables in Fertiliser Demand: The Case of Irrigated Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 477-486.
  6. Muhammad Iqbal & M. Azeem Khan & Munir Ahmad, 2001. "Determinants of Higher Wheat Productivity in Irrigated Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 753-766.
  7. Jamison, Dean T. & Moock, Peter R., 1984. "Farmer education and farm efficiency in Nepal: The role of schooling, extension services, and cognitive skills," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 67-86, January.
  8. Munir Ahmad, 2001. "Agricultural Productivity Growth Differential in Punjab, Pakistan: A District-level Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(1), pages 1-25.
  9. Munir Ahmad & Azkar Ahmad, 1998. "An Analysis of the Sources of Wheat Output Growth in the Barani Area of the Punjab," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(3), pages 231-249.
  10. K.P. Kalirajan & M.B. Obwona & S. Zhao, 1996. "A Decomposition of Total Factor Productivity Growth: The Case of Chinese Agricultural Growth before and after Reforms," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(2), pages 331-338.
  11. Anderson, Jock R. & Feder, Gershon, 2007. "Agricultural Extension," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Elsevier.
  12. Lin, Justin Yifu, 1992. "Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 34-51, March.
  13. Munir Ahmad & Sarfraz Khan Qureshi, 1999. "Recent Evidence on Farm Size and Land Productivity: Implications for Public Policy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 1135-1153.
  14. Bashir Ahmad & Munir Ahmad & Zulfiqar Ahmad Gill, 1998. "Restoration of Soil Health for Achieving Sustainable Growth in Agriculture," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 997-1015.
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Cited by:
  1. Khan, M. Azeem & Iqbal, Muhammad, 2005. "Sustainable Cotton Production through Skill Development among Farmers: Evidence from Khairpur District of Sindh, Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2540, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2005.
  2. Tuffour, Michael & Oppong, Boahen Atta, 1. "Profit Efficiency In Broiler Production: Evidence From Greater Accra Region Of Ghana," International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), Niğde University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, vol. 2(1).
  3. Jin, Songqing & Yu, Winston & Jansen, Hans G.P. & Muraoka, Rie, 2012. "The impact of Irrigation on Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from India," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126868, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  4. Jara-Rojas, Roberto & Bravo-Ureta, Boris E. & Moreira, Victor H. & Diaz, Jose, 2012. "Natural Resource Conservation and Technical Efficiency from Small-scale Farmers in Central Chile," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126227, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  5. Velarde, Orlee & Pede, Valerien O., 2013. "Pattern of investment allocation to chemical inputs and technical efficiency: A stochastic frontier analysis of farm households in Laguna, Philippines," 2013 Conference (57th), February 5-8, 2013, Sydney, Australia 152203, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  6. Munir Ahmad, 2003. "Agricultural Productivity, Efficiency, and Rural Poverty in Irrigated Pakistan: A Stochastic Production FrontiermAnalysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(3), pages 219-248.

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