Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises

Contents:

Author Info

  • Alan M Rugman

    (Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA)

  • Alain Verbeke

    (Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Canada)

Abstract

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are the key drivers of globalization, as they foster increased economic interdependence among national markets. The ultimate test to assess whether these MNEs are global themselves is their actual penetration level of markets across the globe, especially in the broad ‘triad’ markets of NAFTA, the European Union and Asia. Yet, data on the activities of the 500 largest MNEs reveal that very few are successful globally. For 320 of the 380 firms for which geographic sales data are available, an average of 80.3% of total sales are in their home region of the triad. This means that many of the world's largest firms are not global but regionally based, in terms of breadth and depth of market coverage. Globalization, in terms of a balanced geographic distribution of sales across the triad, thus reflects a special, and rather unusual, outcome of doing international business (IB). The regional concentration of sales has important implications for various strands of mainstream IB research, as well as for the broader managerial debate on the design of optimal strategies and governance structures for MNEs. Journal of International Business Studies (2004) 35, 3–18. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400073

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jibs/journal/v35/n1/pdf/8400073a.pdf
File Function: Link to full text PDF
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

File URL: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jibs/journal/v35/n1/full/8400073a.html
File Function: Link to full text HTML
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Palgrave Macmillan in its journal Journal of International Business Studies.

Volume (Year): 35 (2004)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 3-18

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:35:y:2004:i:1:p:3-18

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/

Order Information:
Postal: Palgrave Macmillan Journals, Subscription Department, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, UK
Email:
Web: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/pal/subscribe/index.html

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Frankel, Jeffrey & Stein, Ernesto & Wei, Shang-jin, 1995. "Trading blocs and the Americas: The natural, the unnatural, and the super-natural," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 61-95, June.
  2. Bruce Kogut & Nalin Kulatilaka, 1994. "Operating Flexibility, Global Manufacturing, and the Option Value of a Multinational Network," Management Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 40(1), pages 123-139, January.
  3. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2003. "Extending the theory of the multinational enterprise: internalization and strategic management perspectives," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 34(2), pages 125-137, March.
  4. J H Dunning & G Norman, 1987. "The location choice of offices of international companies," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 19(5), pages 613-631, May.
  5. Buckley, Peter J & Casson, Mark, 1981. "The Optimal Timing of a Foreign Direct Investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(361), pages 75-87, March.
  6. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 1998. "Multinational Enterprises and Public Policy," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(1), pages 115-136, March.
  7. Pomfret, Richard, 2001. "The Economics of Regional Trading Arrangements," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, number 9780199248872, October.
  8. Rugman, Alan & Girod, Stéphane, 2003. "Retail Multinationals and Globalization:: The Evidence is Regional," European Management Journal, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 24-37, February.
  9. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 1992. "A Note on the Transnational Solution and the Transaction Cost Theory of Multinational Strategic Management," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(4), pages 761-771, December.
  10. Alan M Rugman, 1976. "Risk Reduction by International Diversification," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 7(2), pages 75-80, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:35:y:2004:i:1:p:3-18. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Elizabeth Gale).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.