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FDI and Internationalization: Evidence from U.S. Subsidiaries of Foreign Banks


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  • Adrian E Tschoegl

    (The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania)


Nine foreign banks own the ten largest U.S. affiliates or subsidiaries of foreign banks. These account for 86% of the assets in affiliates and subsidiaries. Their histories suggest that most now represent an attempt by the parents to grow outside the confines of home markets. Original motives for their establishment have included ethnic banking and operational stability stemming from geographical dispersion. There is one major instance of acquiring capabilities, but it does not involve retail banking. The dispersal of national origins suggests that bank-specific capabilities are the primary source of the parents' competitive advantage. Being from English speaking countries also appears to help. Lastly, the growth of the affiliates and subsidiaries has not come from incremental growth but rather from a rearrangement of assets among banks.© 2002 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2002) 33, 805–815

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Palgrave Macmillan in its journal Journal of International Business Studies.

Volume (Year): 33 (2002)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
Pages: 805-815

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Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:33:y:2002:i:4:p:805-815

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Cited by:
  1. Cheung, Fanny S.L. & Leung, Wing-Fai, 2007. "International expansion of transnational advertising agencies in China: An assessment of the stages theory approach," International Business Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 251-268, April.
  2. Tschoegl, Adrian E., 2004. "Who owns the major US subsidiaries of foreign banks?: A note," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 255-266, July.
  3. Adrian E. Tschoegl, 2004. "Financial Crises and the Presence of Foreign Banks," International Finance, EconWPA 0405016, EconWPA.
  4. Zhu, Hong & Eden, Lorraine & Miller, Stewart R. & Thomas, Douglas E. & Fields, Paige, 2012. "Host-country location decisions of early movers and latecomers: The role of local density and experiential learning," International Business Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 145-155.
  5. Petrou, Andreas, 2007. "Multinational banks from developing versus developed countries: Competing in the same arena?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 376-397, September.
  6. Adrian E. Tschoegl, . "The Key to Risk Management: Management," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania 99-42, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. CASTANER, Xavier & GENC, Mehmet, 2004. "Country Institutional Differences and Multinational Advantage in Banking," Les Cahiers de Recherche 792, HEC Paris.
  8. Adrian E. Tschoegl, 2004. "Internationalization and the Rearrangement of Ownership of Firms and Parts of Firms: Grindlays Bank, 1828-2000," Economic History, EconWPA 0405001, EconWPA.


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