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Voluntary Export Restraints and Resource Allocation in Exporting Countries

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  • de Melo, Jaime
  • Winters, L Alan

Abstract

This article analyzes the resource implications of voluntary export restraints (VERs) for exporting countries. A simple analytical method is used to demonstrate that, by reducing the marginal revenue of its factors of production, a VER causes an industry in the exporting country to contract, and that the efficiency losses from a VER depend on the ease with which sales can be diverted from the restricted toward the unrestricted markets. The method is applied to test the effects of the U.S. Orderly Marketing Agreement (OMA) for producers of leather footwear in the Republic of Korea during the period 1977-81. We estimate that the marginal revenue product of factors employed in leather footwear declined by as much as 9 percent because of the OMA, an estimate that is corroborated by inspection of time series on output, employment, and wages of the Korean footwear sector. This implies that there was pressure on the Korean footwear industry to contract as a result of the OMA. Copyright 1990 by Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by World Bank Group in its journal World Bank Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 4 (1990)
Issue (Month): 2 (May)
Pages: 209-33

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Handle: RePEc:oup:wbecrv:v:4:y:1990:i:2:p:209-33

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  1. Neary, J. P. & Roberts, K. W. S., 1980. "The theory of household behaviour under rationing," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 25-42, January.
  2. Trela, I. & Whalley, J., 1988. "Do Developing Countries Lose From The Mfa?," University of Western Ontario, The Centre for the Study of International Economic Relations Working Papers 8804c, University of Western Ontario, The Centre for the Study of International Economic Relations.
  3. Aigner, Dennis J. & Hsiao, Cheng & Kapteyn, Arie & Wansbeek, Tom, 1984. "Latent variable models in econometrics," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 23, pages 1321-1393 Elsevier.
  4. Bark, Taeho & de Melo, Jaime, 1988. "Export quota allocations, export earnings and market diversifications," Policy Research Working Paper Series 89, The World Bank.
  5. Hickman, Bert G. & Lau, Lawrence J., 1973. "Elasticities of substitution and export demands in a world trade model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 347-380, December.
  6. Feenstra, Robert C., 1985. "Automobile prices and protection: The U.S.-Japan trade restraint," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-68.
  7. Nogues, Julio J & Olechowski, Andrzej & Winters, L Alan, 1986. "The Extent of Nontariff Barriers to Industrial Countries' Imports," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(1), pages 181-99, September.
  8. Tarr, David G, 1987. "Effects of Restraining Steel Exports from the Republic of Korea and Other Countries to the United States and the European Economic Community," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(3), pages 397-418, May.
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