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Risk Arbitrage in Takeovers

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  • Francesca Cornelli
  • David D. Li
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    Abstract

    This article studies the role of risk arbitrageurs in takeovers and the source of their advantage. We show how the presence of arbitrageurs affects the value of the target shares, since arbitrageurs are more likely to tender. Therefore an arbitrageur has the informational advantage of knowing he bought shares. In equilibrium, the number of arbitrageurs buying shares and the price they pay are determined endogenously. We also present several empirical implications, including the relationship among trading volume, takeover premium, liquidity of the shares, and the number of risk arbitrageurs investing in one particular deal. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Society for Financial Studies in its journal The Review of Financial Studies.

    Volume (Year): 15 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 837-868

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    Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:15:y:2002:i:3:p:837-868

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    References

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    1. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 461-88, June.
    2. Bradley, Michael & Desai, Anand & Kim, E. Han, 1988. "Synergistic gains from corporate acquisitions and their division between the stockholders of target and acquiring firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 3-40, May.
    3. Ernst Maug, 1998. "Large Shareholders as Monitors: Is There a Trade-Off between Liquidity and Control?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 65-98, 02.
    4. Bebchuk, Lucian Arye, 1989. "Takeover Bids below the Expected Value of Minority Shares," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(02), pages 171-184, June.
    5. Kyle, Albert S, 1989. "Informed Speculation with Imperfect Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(3), pages 317-55, July.
    6. Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1995. "The Limits of Arbitrage," NBER Working Papers 5167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Mark Bagnoli, Barton L. Lipman, 1988. "Successful Takeovers without Exclusion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 89-110.
    8. Holmstrom, Bengt & Nalebuff, Barry, 1992. "To the Raider Goes the Surplus? A Reexamination of the Free-Rider Problem," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(1), pages 37-62, Spring.
    9. Giammarino, Ronald M & Heinkel, Robert L, 1986. " A Model of Dynamic Takeover Behavior," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(2), pages 465-80, June.
    10. Thomas H. Noe, 2002. "Investor Activism and Financial Market Structure," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 289-318, March.
    11. Harrington, Joseph E, Jr & Prokop, Jacek, 1993. "The Dynamics of the Free-Rider Problem in Takeovers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(4), pages 851-82.
    12. Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
    13. Cornelli, Francesca & Li, David Daokui, 1998. "Risk Arbitrage in Takeovers," CEPR Discussion Papers 2026, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Larcker, David F. & Lys, Thomas, 1987. "An empirical analysis of the incentives to engage in costly information acquisition : The case of risk arbitrage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 111-126, March.
    15. Charles Kahn & Andrew Winton, 1998. "Ownership Structure, Speculation, and Shareholder Intervention," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 99-129, 02.
    16. Hirshleifer, David & Titman, Sheridan, 1990. "Share Tendering Strategies and the Success of Hostile Takeover Bids," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 295-324, April.
    17. Holderness, Clifford G. & Sheehan, Dennis P., 1985. "Raiders or saviors? The evidence on six controversial investors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 555-555, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Gaspar, Jose-Miguel & Massa, Massimo & Matos, Pedro, 2005. "Shareholder investment horizons and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 135-165, April.
    2. Andriy Bodnaruk & Massimo Massa & Andrei Simonov, 2009. "Investment Banks as Insiders and the Market for Corporate Control," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(12), pages 4989-5026, December.
    3. Burkart, Mike & Gromb, Denis & Panunzi, Fausto, 2005. "Minority Blocks and Takeover Premia," CEPR Discussion Papers 5240, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Jacob Oded & Yu Wang, 2010. "On the different styles of large shareholders’ activism," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 229-267, June.
    5. Hsieh, Jim & Walkling, Ralph A., 2005. "Determinants and implications of arbitrage holdings in acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 605-648, September.
    6. Robert Marquez & Bilge Yılmaz, 2008. "Information and Efficiency in Tender Offers," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(5), pages 1075-1101, 09.

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