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Something in the way she moves: a fresh look at an old gap

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  • Alan Manning
  • Helen Robinson

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new decomposition as a useful complement to traditional methods of explaining the gender pay gap and the pay gap between full-time and part-time women. We decompose average earnings into the contribution of the average starting wage for workers entering paid work from non-employment, average wage growth for those in continuous employment, and the fraction of workers entering employment. We use this to inform discussion of the pay gap, first, between men and women and, second, between full-time and part-time women. Comparing men and women using data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey, we find no significant differences in wage growth whilst in continuous employment: the source of the gender pay gap comes from the entrant pay gap and the share of entrants. The study of longer-run changes leads us to expect a modest further narrowing of this gap. Comparisons of full- and part-time women indicate no difference in entry pay shares and little difference in wage growth. The bulk of the full- to part-time gap is explained in terms of the fact that women working part-time are much more likely to be entrants to the labour market. Copyright 2004, Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Oxford University Press in its journal Oxford Economic Papers.

Volume (Year): 56 (2004)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
Pages: 169-188

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Handle: RePEc:oup:oxecpp:v:56:y:2004:i:2:p:169-188

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  1. Dickens, Richard, 2000. "The Evolution of Individual Male Earnings in Great Britain: 1975-95," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(460), pages 27-49, January.
  2. Albrecht, J & Edin, P-A & Sundstrom, M & Vroman, S-B, 1996. "Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earning : A Reexamination Using Swedish Data," Papers 1996-23, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  3. Gronau, Reuben, 1988. "Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(3), pages 277-301, July.
  4. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1997. "Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in 1980s," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 1-42, January.
  5. Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
  6. John M. Abowd & David Card, 1986. "On the Covariance Structure of Earnings and Hours Changes," NBER Working Papers 1832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Richard Dickens, 1996. "The Evolution of Individual Male Earnings in Great Britain 1974-1994," CEP Discussion Papers dp0306, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  8. Edin, P.A. & Nynabb, J., 1992. "Gender Wage Differentials and Interrupted Work Careers : Swedish Evidence," Papers 1992-17, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
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Cited by:
  1. Frenette, Marc, 2007. "Why Are Youth from Lower-income Families Less Likely to Attend University? Evidence from Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Financial Constraints," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2007295e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  2. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
  3. Heitmueller, Axel & Inglis, Kirsty, 2004. "Carefree? Participation and Pay Differentials for Informal Carers in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 1273, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Kerly Krillo & Jaan Masso, 2010. "The Part-Time/Full-Time Wage Gap In Central And Eastern Europe: The Case Of Estonia," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 65, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
  5. Elke Wolf, 2014. "The German Part-Time Wage Gap: Bad News for Men," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 663, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  6. repec:ese:iserwp:2009-26 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Mumford, Karen A. & Smith, Peter N., 2004. "The Gender Earnings Gap in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 1109, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2005. "The Gender Gap in Early Career Wage Growth," CEP Discussion Papers dp0700, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  9. Giovanni Russo & Wolter Hassink, 2008. "The Part-Time Wage Gap: a Career Perspective," De Economist, Springer, vol. 156(2), pages 145-174, June.
  10. Hirsch, Barry, 2004. "Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills," IZA Discussion Papers 1261, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Philippe Van Kerm, 2013. "Generalized measures of wage differentials," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 465-482, August.
  12. Mc Quaid, Ronald & Bergmann, Ariel, 2008. "Employer recruitment preferences and discrimination: a stated preference experiment," MPRA Paper 30801, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Mumford, Karen A. & Smith, Peter N., 2007. "Assessing the Importance of Male and Female Part-Time Work for the Gender Earnings Gap in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 2981, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Colella, Fabrizio, 2014. "Women's Part-Time - Full-Time Wage Differentials in Europe: an Endogenous Switching Model," MPRA Paper 55287, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  15. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Wunderlich, Gaby, 2001. "The changing gender gap across the wage distribution in the UK," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-56, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  16. Giovanni Russo & Wolter Hassink, 2005. "The Part-Time Wage Penalty: a Career Perspective," Working Papers 05-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
  17. Zeman, Klarka & Frenette, Marc, 2007. "Why Are Most University Students Women? Evidence Based on Academic Performance, Study Habits and Parental Influences," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2007303e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  18. Frenette, Marc, 2007. "Pourquoi les jeunes provenant de familles a plus faible revenu sont-ils moins susceptibles de frequenter l'universite? Analyse fondee sur les aptitudes aux etudes, l'influence des parents et les contr," Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche 2007295f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
  19. Martin, Daniel & Wiley, Donna & Legree, Peter, 2006. "Ethnocentrism and Internal Compensation Structuring: An Experimental Examination of Point Factor Job Evaluation," MPRA Paper 28683, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Russo, Giovanni & Hassink, Wolter, 2005. "The Part-Time Wage Penalty: A Career Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 1468, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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