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A Technical Definition of Uncertainty and the Long-run Non-neutrality of Money

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  • Davidson, Paul

Abstract

A technical definition of uncertainty can be developed if economic observations can be generated by stochastic processes. Uncertainty about the future is then defined in terms of the existence of a nonergodic economic environment. In such an environment, statistics based on either cross-sectional data or on past time-series data do not provide good forecasts of future outcomes, i.e., past evidence does not provide reliable estimates of future results. The problem facing every decisionmaker is to determine whether the phenomena is sufficiently time invariant as to be presumed ergodic or whether nonergodic circumstances are involved. Keynes's use of uncertainty in the discussion of liquidity is compatible with a nonergodic environment. Only in a nonergodic environment do the concepts of money, fixed contracts, and liquidity make sense, and then all existence theorems for general equilibrium are jeopardized. Copyright 1988 by Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Oxford University Press in its journal Cambridge Journal of Economics.

Volume (Year): 12 (1988)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
Pages: 329-37

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Handle: RePEc:oup:cambje:v:12:y:1988:i:3:p:329-37

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Cited by:
  1. Stephen Dunn, 2000. "Fundamental Uncertainty and the Firm in the Long Run," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 419-433.
  2. Hein, Eckhard, 2004. "Money, credit and the interest rate in Marx's economic. On the similarities of Marx's monetary analysis to Post-Keynesian economics," MPRA Paper 18608, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Bernard Shull, 1993. "The Limits of Prudential Supervision: Economic Problems, Institutional Failure and Competence," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_88, Levy Economics Institute.
  4. Fontana, Giuseppe & Gerrard, Bill, 2004. "A Post Keynesian theory of decision making under uncertainty," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 619-637, October.
  5. José Eduardo Gómez & Nidia Ruth Reyes, 2002. "El racionamiento del crédito y las crisis financieras," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 4(7), pages 62-75, July-Dece.
  6. Hein, Eckhard & Dodig, Nina & Budyldina, Natalia, 2014. "Financial, economic and social systems: French Regulation School, Social Structures of Accumulation and Post-Keynesian approaches compared," IPE Working Papers 34/2014, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
  7. Lavoie, Marc, 1992. "Éléments d’analyse d’une synthèse post-classique," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 68(4), pages 607-631, décembre.
  8. Milan Sojka, 2010. "Monetary Policy of the European Central Bank and Its Theoretical Resources in the View of Postkeynesian Economy," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2010(1), pages 3-19.
  9. Piero Ferri & Anna Maria Variato, 2007. "Macro Dynamics in a Model with Uncertainty," Working Papers 0704, University of Bergamo, Department of Economics.

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