Mimicking multiple models: polyphenetic masqueraders gain additional benefits from crypsis
AbstractMany prey organisms avoid predation by mimicking inanimate objects: a phenomenon known as masquerade. It is expected that masquerade will show a frequency-dependent advantage such that masquerading species benefit more from their appearance when they are rare in comparison with their models. In such circumstances, selection may favor the coexistence of different phenotypes (polyphenism or polymorphism). The American peppered moth caterpillar Biston betularia cognataria appears to show polyphenetic masquerade: caterpillars found on birch trees look like birch twigs; those on willow trees look like willow twigs. Here, we show in laboratory experiments that the caterpillar does benefit from masquerade and that polyphenism is key to this benefit: avian predators misclassified birch-fed larvae as birch twigs and willow-fed larvae as willow twigs. In a second experiment where the benefits of masquerade were excluded, we show that larvae are less likely to be attacked when located on the host species whose twigs they resemble than when found on an alternative species whose twigs they do not resemble; thus, the polyphenism provides antipredatory benefits through crypsis as well as through masquerade. This is the first time that a species has been demonstrated to have the capacity to benefit both from masquerade and from crypsis, and the first time, polyphenism has been demonstrated to benefit masquerade. Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by International Society for Behavioral Ecology in its journal Behavioral Ecology.
Volume (Year): 22 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, UK
Fax: 01865 267 985
Web page: http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/
You can help add them by filling out this form.
reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.