International and Institutional R&D Spillovers: Attribution of Benefits among Sources for Brazil's New Crop Varieties
AbstractReported rates of return to agricultural R&D are generally high, but they are likely to be biased, particularly because of attribution problems—mismatching research benefits with costs. The importance of attribution biases is illustrated here with new evidence for Brazil. During 1981–2003, varietal improvements in upland rice, edible beans, and soybeans yielded benefits of $14.8 billion in present value (1999 prices) terms. Attributing all of the benefits to Embrapa, a public research corporation accounting for more than half of Brazil's agricultural R&D spending, the benefit-cost ratio would be 78:1. Under alternative attribution rules, the ratio drops to 16:1. Copyright 2006, Oxford University Press.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Agricultural and Applied Economics Association in its journal American Journal of Agricultural Economics.
Volume (Year): 88 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
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Other versions of this item:
- Pardey, Philip G. & Alston, Julian M. & Chan-Kang, Connie & Magalhaes, Eduardo Castelo & Vosti, Stephen A., 2002. "International And Institutional R&D Spillovers: Attribution Of Benefits Among Sources For Brazil'S New Crop Varieties," Working Papers 14422, University of Minnesota, Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.
- Alston, Julian M. & Pardey, Philip G. & Chan-Kang, Connie & Magalhaes, Eduardo Castelo & Vosti, Stephen A., 2004. "International And Institutional R&D Spillovers: Attribution Of Benefits Among Sources For Brazil'S New Crop Varieties," Staff Papers 14017, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
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