The Economic Benefits and Costs of Entrepreneurship: A Review of the Research
AbstractMany studies in the entrepreneurship literature are motivated by the statement that entrepreneurship has important economic value, for instance, in terms of productivity and growth, employment generation or, innovation. This claim is often substantiated by a reference to (at most) one or two studies finding supporting evidence. However, whether the cited reference was one of the few out of many studies that "happened" to find supportive evidence is not yet clear. This paper examines to what extent recent empirical evidence can collectively and systematically substantiate the claim that entrepreneurs cause important economic benefits. Hence, a systematic review is provided that answers the question: What is the contribution of entrepreneurs to the economy in comparison to non-entrepreneurs? We study the relative contribution of entrepreneurs to the economy based on four measures that have most widely been studied empirically. Hence, we answer the particular question: What is the contribution of entrepreneurs to (i) employment generation and dynamics, (ii) innovation, and (iii) productivity and growth, relative to the contributions of the entrepreneurs' counterparts, i.e., the "control group?" A fourth type of contribution studied is the role of entrepreneurship in increasing individuals' utility levels. Based on 57 recent studies of high quality that contain 87 relevant separate analyses, we conclude that entrepreneurs have a very important — but specific — function in the economy. They engender relatively much employment creation, productivity growth and produce and commercialize high quality innovations. They are more satisfied than employees. More importantly, recent studies show that entrepreneurial firms produce important spillovers that affect regional employment growth rates of all companies in the region in the long run. However, the counterparts cannot be missed as they account for a relatively high value of productivity and growth, a less volatile and more secure labor market, higher paid jobs and a greater number of innovations and they have a more active role in the adoption of innovations.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by now publishers in its journal Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship.
Volume (Year): 4 (2007)
Issue (Month): 2 (October)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.nowpublishers.com/
Employment generation; Entrepreneurship; Productivity and growth;
You can help add them by filling out this form.
reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alet Heezemans).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.