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La educación en España: indicadores del gasto en educación y comparación con los países de la UE

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  • Mª Teresa Sanz García

    (Departamento de Economía y Hacienda. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.)

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    Abstract

    La educación es uno de los bienes que el sector público produce y producirá, porque además de tener características de bien público tiene externalidades, es un bien preferente y es un instrumento redistribuidor de riqueza. La eficiencia exigible al sector público precisa del estudio de las condiciones de provisión del bien. En concreto del conocimiento de los factores de los que depende, de la situación en que se encuentra actualmente y de los objetivos de convergencia existentes en la UE. Utilizando datos de la población total y del número de alumnos, de los Censos de Población y Viviendas y de las Estadísticas de la Enseñanza del Ministerio de Educación y del INE, se calculan las tasas de escolarización y los ratios alumnos/profesor, para estudiar las causas de la evolución que los distintos tipos de enseñanzasa han experimentado entre 1981 y 1991. Las Proyecciones de Población del INE y algunos supuestos sobre la evolución de la tasa de escolarización, sirven para prever la situación en el horizonte próximo y las políticas que optimizarán su provisión. Se hace hincapié en el gasto en educación universitaria,, por la espectac ular evolución que ha sufrido en la década y sus consecuencias de empeoramiento de la tasa alumno/profesor, la masificación y el descenso de la calidad de la enseñanza. La comparación con los sistemas de enseñanza obligatoria existentes en los países de la UE, nos permite relativizar nuestra posición y establecer las principales diferencias que se estudian ordenando algunos indicadores representativos de la situación económica del país y del gasto que realiza en educación. En concreto se examinan, en relación al PIB per cápita en dólares de paridad de poder de compra, cuatro indicadores: el Gasto Público Total, el Gasto en Educación, su desagregación en Gasto Público y Privado y por último el Gasto en Educación respecto al Total de Gasto. Las principales conclusiones son: que es necesario ir enujugando las diferencias que nos separan de los países de la UE, flexibilizando tanto el sistema educativo, en especial la enseñanza universitaria, como el sistema de financiación; mejorar su calidad y sus contenidos sin incrementar el gasto y remontar la decadencia que el gasto en educación ha experimentado en los últimos años. Education is one of goods that the public sector produced and will continue to produce because in adtion to having features of common good, it has external effects in this consumption, is a merit good and an instrument to wealth redistribution. The efficiency required from the public sector demands the previous study of the conditions of its provision, the knowledge of the factors it depends on, the present situation of the economy and the aims of convergence with other countries in the EU. Using on sources the Population and Housing Census and the Schoolling Statistics of the Ministery of Education and the INE (Statistical Office), we have calculated the rates of schooling and student/teacher in order to determine the causes of the evolution in the different types of education beween 1981 and 1991. The population projection of the INE and some assumptions on the evolution of the schooling rate, are useful to forecast the situation we will find in the near future and the policies that will better its privision. We have emphasized the cost of university education because it has undergone a spectacular evolution and it has created problems like somely worse rate students/teacher and necesity to improve the quality. The comparison of the compulsory education systems in the EU countries lets us contrast our position and establish the main differences. The study of the differences is carried out by setting in order some indicators representing the economic situation of the country and the education expenditure. Specifically, we have examined in proportion of the GPD per head in PPS (purchasing power standard), four rates: the Total Public Expenditure, the Education Expenditure, its breakup in public and private Expenditure and last the Education Expenditure in proportion to Total Public Expenditure. The main conclussions are: the need to modify, by making it more flexible, the educational system and its financiament, specially the university education, to improve its quality and its subjects without increasing its costs, and to overcome the decline that the education expenditure have undergone in the last years.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Estudios de Economía Aplicada in its journal Estudios de Economía Aplicada.

    Volume (Year): 1 (1994)
    Issue (Month): (Junio)
    Pages: 7-29

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    Handle: RePEc:lrk:eeaart:1_2_7

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    Keywords: Educación; Indicadores; Gasto en Educación; Gasto Público.;

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