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Desigualdad del rédito y bienestar social, descomposición, distancia direccional y distancia métrica entre distribuciones

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  • DAGUM, CAMILO

    (Profesor, Universidad de Bologna, Italia Profesor Emérito, Universidad de Ottawa, Canadá)

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    Abstract

    Se presentan y analizan los índices de desigualdad de Gini, de Atkinson y de la entropía generalizada. Para este último se estudian los casos particulares de Theil y de Bourguignon. Se discuten los méritos de cada uno de dichos índices desde el punto de vista del cumplimiento de propiedades tales como: (i) existencia de fundamentos realísticos de bienestar social, (ii) descomposición y (iii) sensibilidad a las transferencias de réditos entre unidades económicas. Se llega a la conclusión que el método de descomposición de las medidas de desigualdad no ofrece fundamento o información útil para la formulación de políticas socioeconómicas que se propongan la generación de procesos económicos que sean eficientes y satisfagan un principio de equidad. Luego de presentar y analizar cuantitativamente las contradicciones a que da lugar la descomposición de los índices de base entrópica, se introduce y analiza el índice de distancia direccional entre distribuciones propuesto por Dagum ( Econometrica, 1980 y Journal of Business ane Economic Statistics,1987) y el índice de distancia métrica. Se evidencia que la distancia direccional y la distancia métrica dan respuestas a dos fenómenos socioeconómicos completamente diferentes. El primero ofrece una medida absoluta (en la unidad monetaria considerada) y una relativa (sin dimensión) de la afluencia de rédito de una población con respecto a otra con rédito inferior. En cambio, la distancia métrica ofrece una medida de la disimilaridad entre distribuciones del rédito de dos poblaciones.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Estudios de Economía Aplicada in its journal Estudios de Economía Aplicada.

    Volume (Year): 17 (2001)
    Issue (Month): (Abril)
    Pages: 5-52

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    Handle: RePEc:lrk:eeaart:17_1_9

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    Related research

    Keywords: Diversificación; Carteras; Riesgo específico; Heterodecasticidad; bolsa;

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    References

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    1. Dagum, Camilo, 1997. "A New Approach to the Decomposition of the Gini Income Inequality Ratio," Empirical Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 515-31.
    2. Dagum, Camilo, 1987. "Measuring the Economic Affluence between Populations of Income Receivers," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 5(1), pages 5-12, January.
    3. Dagum, Camilo, 1990. "On the relationship between income inequality measures and social welfare functions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 43(1-2), pages 91-102.
    4. Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1994. "Economic distance and overlapping of distributions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 147-159, March.
    5. Dagum, Camilo, 1980. "Inequality Measures between Income Distributions with Applications," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 48(7), pages 1791-1803, November.
    6. Ebert, Udo, 1984. "Measures of distance between income distributions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 266-274, April.
    7. Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-20, July.
    8. Das, T & Parikh, A, 1982. "Decomposition of Inequality Measures and a Comparative Analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 7(1-2), pages 23-48.
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    Cited by:
    1. Héctor Gertel & Roberto Giuliodori & Alejandro Rodríguez, 2004. "Cambios en la diferenciación de los ingresos de la población del Gran Córdoba entre 1992 y 2000 según el género y nivel de escolaridad," Revista de Economía y Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Instituto de Economía y Finanzas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Instituto de Economía y Finanzas, vol. 0(1), pages 115-139, January.
    2. Jordá , Vanesa & Trueba, Carmen & Sarabia, Jose Maria, 2014. "Análisis multidimensional de la desigualdad en el marco del desarrollo humano/Multidimensional Analysis of Inequality under the Human Development Framework," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 32, pages 765-788, Mayo.

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