How Much Did Banks Pay to Become Too-Big-To-Fail and to Become Systemically Important?
AbstractThis paper estimates the value of the too-big-to-fail (TBTF) subsidy. Using data from the merger boom of 1991–2004, we find that banking organizations were willing to pay an added premium for mergers that would put them over the asset sizes that are commonly viewed as the thresholds for being TBTF. We estimate at least $15 billion in added premiums for the eight merger deals that brought the organizations to over $100 billion in assets. In addition, we find that both the stock and bond markets reacted positively to these TBTF merger deals. Our estimated TBTF subsidy is large enough to create serious concern, particularly since the recently assisted mergers have effectively allowed for TBTF banking organizations to become even bigger and for nonbanks to become part of TBTF banking organizations, thus extending the TBTF subsidy beyond banking. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Financial Services Research.
Volume (Year): 43 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102934
Bank merger; Too-big-to-fail; TBTF subsidy; Systemically important bank; G21; G28; G34;
Other versions of this item:
- Elijah Brewer, III & Julapa Jagtiani, 2009. "How much did banks pay to become too-big-to-fail and to become systemically important?," Working Papers 09-34, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Elijah Brewer, III & Julapa Jagtiani, 2011. "How much did banks pay to become too-big-to-fail and to become systematically important?," Working Papers 11-37, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
- G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
- G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Edward Kane, 2009. "Extracting Nontransparent Safety Net Subsidies by Strategically Expanding and Contracting a Financial Institution’s Accounting Balance Sheet," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 161-168, December.
- Robert DeYoung & Douglas Evanoff & Philip Molyneux, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions of Financial Institutions: A Review of the Post-2000 Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 87-110, December.
- Ingo Walter & Markus M. Schmid, 2006. "Do Financial Conglomerates Create or Destroy Economic Value?," Working Papers 06-28, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Huberto M. Ennis & H.S. Malek, 2005. "Bank risk of failure and the too-big-to-fail policy," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 21-44.
- Viral Acharya & Tanju Yorulmazer, 2007.
"Too many to fail - an analysis of time-inconsistency in bank closure policies,"
Bank of England working papers
319, Bank of England.
- Acharya, Viral V. & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2007. "Too many to fail--An analysis of time-inconsistency in bank closure policies," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-31, January.
- Acharya, Viral V & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2004. "Too Many to Fail - An Analysis of Time Inconsistency in Bank Closure Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 4778, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Edward J. Kane, 2000.
"Incentives for banking megamergers: what motives might regulators infer from event-study evidence?,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 671-705.
- Kane, Edward J, 2000. "Incentives for Banking Megamergers: What Motives Might Regulators Infer from Event-Study Evidence?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 671-701, August.
- Edward J. Kane, 2000. "Incentives for banking megamergers: what motives might regulations infer from event-study evidence?," Proceedings 675, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Bradley, Michael & Desai, Anand & Kim, E. Han, 1988. "Synergistic gains from corporate acquisitions and their division between the stockholders of target and acquiring firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 3-40, May.
- Flannery, Mark J & Sorescu, Sorin M, 1996. " Evidence of Bank Market Discipline in Subordinated Debenture Yields: 1983-1991," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1347-77, September.
- Penas, Maria Fabiana & Unal, Haluk, 2004. "Gains in bank mergers: Evidence from the bond markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 149-179, October.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- George G. Kaufman, 1991. "Capital in banking: past, present and future," Working Paper Series, Issues in Financial Regulation 91-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Benston, George J & Hunter, William C & Wall, Larry D, 1995. "Motivations for Bank Mergers and Acquisitions: Enhancing the Deposit Insurance Put Option versus Earnings Diversification," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(3), pages 777-88, August.
- Kenneth A. Carow & Edward J. Kane & Rajesh P. Narayanan, 2005.
"How have borrowers fared in banking mega-mergers?,"
Working Paper Series
2005-09, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- O'Hara, Maureen & Shaw, Wayne, 1990. " Deposit Insurance and Wealth Effects: The Value of Being "Too Big to Fail."," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1587-1600, December.
- Brickley, James A. & James, Christopher M., 1986. "Access to deposit insurance, insolvency rules and the stock returns of financial institutions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 345-371, July.
- Craig O. Brown & I. Serdar Dinç, 0. "Too Many to Fail? Evidence of Regulatory Forbearance When the Banking Sector Is Weak," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(4), pages 1378-1405.
- Julie Wulf, 2004. "Do CEOs in Mergers Trade Power for Premium? Evidence from "Mergers of Equals"," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(1), pages 60-101, April.
- Houston, Joel F. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 1994. "The overall gains from large bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1155-1176, December.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- The economics of enormity
by ? in Free exchange on 2012-11-03 14:44:50
- We Must 'Stand Up to Concentrated and Powerful Corporate Interests'
by ? in Economist's View on 2012-11-08 18:41:53
- 10 Tuesday PM Reads
by Barry Ritholtz in The Big Picture on 2012-11-13 21:00:42
- Selgin, George & Lastrapes, William D. & White, Lawrence H., 2012. "Has the Fed been a failure?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 569-596.
- Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2011.
"Who said large banks don't experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function,"
11-27, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Hughes, Joseph P. & Mester, Loretta J., 2013. "Who said large banks don’t experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 559-585.
- Joseph J. Hughes & Loretta Mester, 2011. "Who Said Large Banks Don't Experience Scale Economies? Evidence from a Risk-Return-Driven Cost Function," Departmental Working Papers 201127, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
- Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2013. "Who said large banks don’t experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function," Working Papers 13-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, revised 04 Feb 2014.
- Löffler, Gunter & Posch, Peter N, 2013. "Wall Street’s bailout bet: Market reactions to house price releases in the presence of bailout expectations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5147-5158.
- Montgomery, Heather & Takahashi, Yuki, 2011. "The Japanese Big Bang: the effects of "free, fair and global"," MPRA Paper 35040, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mark Mink & Jakob de Haan, 2014. "Spillovers from Systemic Bank Defaults," CESifo Working Paper Series 4792, CESifo Group Munich.
- Jokivuolle, Esa & Keppo, Jussi, 2014. "Bankers' compensation: Sprint swimming in short bonus pools?," Research Discussion Papers 2/2014, Bank of Finland.
- Kersten Kellermann, 2011. "Too big to fail: a thorn in the side of free markets," Empirica, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 331-349, July.
- Philip E. Strahan, 2013. "Too Big to Fail: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 5(1), pages 43-61, November.
- Hakenes , Hendrik & Hasan, Iftekhar & Molyneux, Phil & Xie , Ru, 2014. "Small banks and local economic development," Research Discussion Papers 5/2014, Bank of Finland.
- Raquel de F. Oliveira & Rafael F. Schiozer & Lucas A. B. de C. Barros, 2011. "Too Big to Fail Perception by Depositors: an empirical investigation," Working Papers Series 233, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
- Benjamin M. Tabak & Dimas M. Fazio & Daniel O. Cajueiro, 2011. "Profit, Cost and Scale Efficiency for Latin American Banks: Concentration-Performance Relationship," Working Papers Series 244, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.