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The Effects of Firm Size and Industry on Corporate Giving

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  • Louis Amato
  • Christie Amato

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    Abstract

    Recent downward trends in corporate giving have renewed interest in the factors that shape corporate philanthropy. This paper examines the relationships between charitable contributions, firm size and industry. Improvements over previous studies include an IRS data base that covers a much broader range of firm sizes and industries as compared to previous studies and estimation using an instrumental variable technique that explicitly addresses potential simultaneity between charitable contributions and profitability. Important findings provide evidence of a cubic relationship between charitable giving and firm size and evidence of strong industry effects. The plus-minus-plus regression coefficient sign pattern for the cubic firm size model suggests that small and large firms give more relative to total receipts with lower giving ratios among medium size firms. One interpretation for this finding is that small firms are close to the communities they serve while high visibility creates a need for large firm philanthropy. Strong industry effects provide evidence of inter-industry differences in giving culture and/or different public relations requirements across industries. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10551-006-9167-5
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Business Ethics.

    Volume (Year): 72 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 3 (May)
    Pages: 229-241

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    Handle: RePEc:kap:jbuset:v:72:y:2007:i:3:p:229-241

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    Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100281

    Related research

    Keywords: charitable contributions; corporate philanthropy; firm size; industry effects; social responsibility;

    References

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    1. L. Wade, 1988. "Review," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 99-100, July.
    2. Fisher, Franklin M & McGowan, John J, 1983. "On the Misuse of Accounting Rates of Return to Infer Monopoly Profits," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(1), pages 82-97, March.
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    4. Shepherd, William G, 1972. "The Elements of Market Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 54(1), pages 25-37, February.
    5. Roberts, Robin W., 1992. "Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: An application of stakeholder theory," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 595-612, August.
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    Cited by:
    1. Jin, Justin Yiqiang & Kanagaretnam, Kiridaran & Lobo, Gerald J. & Mathieu, Robert, 2013. "Impact of FDICIA internal controls on bank risk taking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 614-624.
    2. Marcus Wagner, 2010. "Corporate Social Performance and Innovation with High Social Benefits: A Quantitative Analysis," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 94(4), pages 581-594, July.
    3. Wenjing Li & Ran Zhang, 2010. "Corporate Social Responsibility, Ownership Structure, and Political Interference: Evidence from China," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 96(4), pages 631-645, November.
    4. Nicola Comincioli & Laura Poddi & Sergio Vergalli, 2012. "Corporate Social Responsibility and Firms’ Performance: A Stratigraphical Analysis," Working Papers 2012.77, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    5. Ran Zhang & Jigao Zhu & Heng Yue & Chunyan Zhu, 2010. "Corporate Philanthropic Giving, Advertising Intensity, and Industry Competition Level," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 94(1), pages 39-52, June.
    6. Alan Muller & Gail Whiteman, 2009. "Exploring the Geography of Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response: A Study of Fortune Global 500 Firms," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 84(4), pages 589-603, February.
    7. Céline Gainet, 2010. "Exploring the Impact of Legal Systems and Financial Structure on Corporate Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 95(2), pages 195-222, September.
    8. Cowan, Adrian & Huang, Chia-Hsing & Padmanabhan, Prasad & Wang, Chi-Hui, 2013. "The determinants of foreign giving: An exploratory empirical investigation of US manufacturing firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 407-420.
    9. Paolo Cominetti & Laura Poddi & Sergio Vergalli, 2013. "The Push Factors for Corporate Social Responsibility: A Probit Analysis," Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ScientificPapers.org, vol. 3(2), pages 2, April.
    10. Marcus Wagner, 2013. "‘Green’ Human Resource Benefits: Do they Matter as Determinants of Environmental Management System Implementation?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 114(3), pages 443-456, May.
    11. Paolo Cominetti & Laura Poddi & Sergio Vergalli, 2012. "The Push Factors for Corporate Social Responsibility: A Probit Analysis," Working Papers 2012.58, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    12. Ana S. Branca & Joaquim P. Pina & Margarida Catalão-Lopes, 2012. "Corporate Giving, Competition and the Economic Cycle," Working Papers Department of Economics 2012/15, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon.
    13. Chai, D.H., 2010. "Firm Ownership and Philanthropy," ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers wp400, ESRC Centre for Business Research.
    14. Nicola Comincioli & Laura Poddi & Sergio Vergalli, 2012. "Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect the Performance of Firms?," Working Papers 2012.53, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    15. Jean Kabongo & Kiyoung Chang & Ying Li, 2013. "The Impact of Operational Diversity on Corporate Philanthropy: An Empirical Study of U.S. Companies," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 116(1), pages 49-65, August.
    16. Louis Amato & Christie Amato, 2012. "Retail Philanthropy: Firm Size, Industry, and Business Cycle," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 107(4), pages 435-448, June.
    17. Ran Zhang & Zabihollah Rezaee & Jigao Zhu, 2010. "Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response and Ownership Type: Evidence from Chinese Firms’ Response to the Sichuan Earthquake," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 91(1), pages 51-63, January.

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