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Investigation of the Greek – Turkish Military Spending Relation

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  • Mary Michail

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  • Nicholas Papasyriopoulos

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    Abstract

    In this paper, the relation between the Greek and Turkish military spending is investigated, examining first the identification of its exact statistical form, and second, a diachronically constant ratio between the two magnitudes. Using annual nominal data over the period from 1949 to 2008, the stationarity of the series is tested by performing a sequential Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and a Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin (KPSS) unit root test. Both the long–run equilibrium relation among the series of the Greek and Turkish military spending and their diachronically constant ratio are estimated following a Johansen cointegration analysis. Copyright International Atlantic Economic Society 2012

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11294-012-9362-3
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Springer in its journal International Advances in Economic Research.

    Volume (Year): 18 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 3 (August)
    Pages: 259-270

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    Handle: RePEc:kap:iaecre:v:18:y:2012:i:3:p:259-270

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    Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=112112

    Related research

    Keywords: Military spending; Constant defense spending ratio; Equilibrium relation; C10; H50;

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    References

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    1. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
    2. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    3. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986. "A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix," NBER Technical Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. J. Paul Dunne & Eftychia Nikolaidou & Nikolaos Mylonidis, 2003. "The demand for military spending in the peripheral economies of Europe," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(6), pages 447-460.
    5. George Georgiou & Panayiotis Kapopoulos & Sophia Lazaretou, . "Modelling Greek - Turkish Rivalry: An Empirical Investigation Of Defence Spending Dynamics," Working Papers 9411, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    6. Mackinnon, J.G. & Haug, A.A. & Michelis, L., 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 96a09, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
    7. Dolado, Juan J & Jenkinson, Tim & Sosvilla-Rivero, Simon, 1990. " Cointegration and Unit Roots," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 249-73.
    8. Kenneth D. West & Whitney K. Newey, 1995. "Automatic Lag Selection in Covariance Matrix Estimation," NBER Technical Working Papers 0144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Christos Kollias & Stelios Makrydakis, 1997. "Is there a Greek-Turkish arms race?: Evidence from cointegration and causality tests," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 355-379.
    10. Eftychia Nikolaidou, 2008. "The Demand For Military Expenditure: Evidence From The Eu15 (1961-2005)," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 273-292.
    11. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
    12. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
    13. Selami Sezgin & Julide Yildirim, 2002. "The Demand for Turkish Defence Expenditure," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 121-128.
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