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Willingness to Pay to Reduce Mortality Risks: Evidence from a Three-Country Contingent Valuation Study

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  • Anna Alberini

    ()

  • Alistair Hunt
  • Anil Markandya

Abstract

Valuing a change in the risk of death is a key input into the calculation of the benefits of environmental policies that save lives. Typically such risks are monetized using the Value of a Statistical Life (VSL). Since the majority of the lives saved by environmental policies are those of older persons, there has been much recent debate about whether the VSL should be lower for the elderly to reflect their fewer remaining life years. We conducted a contingent valuation survey in the UK, Italy and France designed to answer this question. The survey was administered in these three countries following a standardized protocol. Our results suggest that the VSL is €1.022 million or €2.264 million, depending on whether we use median or mean WTP. The VSL is not significantly lower for older persons, but is higher for persons who have been admitted to a hospital or emergency room for cardiovascular and respiratory problems. Income is positively and significantly associated with WTP. The income elasticities of the WTP increase gradually with income levels and are between 0.15 and 0.5 for current income levels in EU countries. We use the responses to the WTP questions to estimate the value of an extension in remaining life expectancy. The value of a loss of one year’s life expectancy is €54,000 or €163,000. Copyright Springer 2006

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10640-005-3106-2
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists in its journal Environmental & Resource Economics.

Volume (Year): 33 (2006)
Issue (Month): 2 (02)
Pages: 251-264

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Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:33:y:2006:i:2:p:251-264

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Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100263

Related research

Keywords: contingent valuation; life expectancy; risk reduction; value of a statistical life; willingness to pay; H41; H51; I18; I31; J17;

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  1. Alberini, Anna & Cropper, Maureen & Krupnick, Alan & Simon, N.B.Nathalie B., 2004. "Does the value of a statistical life vary with age and health status? Evidence from the US and Canada," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 769-792, July.
  2. Persson, Ulf, et al, 2001. " The Value of a Statistical Life in Transport: Findings from a New Contingent Valuation Study in Sweden," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 121-34, September.
  3. Krupnick, Alan, et al, 2002. " Age, Health and the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reductions: A Contingent Valuation Survey of Ontario Residents," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 161-86, March.
  4. Johannesson, Magnus & Johansson, Per-Olov, 1996. "To Be, or Not to Be, That Is the Question: An Empirical Study of the WTP for an Increased Life Expectancy at an Advanced Age," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 163-74, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Menz, Tobias & Welsch, Heinz, 2010. "Population aging and environmental preferences in OECD countries: The case of air pollution," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2582-2589, October.
  2. Andrea M. Leiter & Gerald J. Pruckner, 2005. "Dying in an Avalanche: Current Risks and Valuation," School of Economics Working Papers 2005-16, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
  3. Dennis Guignet & Anna Alberini, 2013. "Can Property Values Capture Changes in Environmental Health Risks? Evidence from a Stated Preference Study in Italy and the UK," Working Papers 2013.67, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  4. Anna Alberini & Aline Chiabai, 2005. "Urban Environmental Health and Sensitive Populations: How Much are the Italians Willing to Pay to Reduce Their Risks?," Working Papers 2005.105, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  5. Mellin, Anna & Nerhagen, Lena, 2010. "HEALTH EFFECTS OF TRANSPORT EMISSIONS - A review of the state of the art of methods and data used for external costs calculations," Working Papers 2010:7, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI).
  6. Andersson, Henrik, 2006. "Willingness to Pay for Car Safety: Evidence from Sweden," Working Papers 2006:7, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI).
  7. Stephen C. Newbold, 2011. "Valuing Health Risk Changes Using a Life-Cycle Consumption Framework," NCEE Working Paper Series 201103, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, revised Apr 2011.
  8. Andersson, Henrik & Hammitt, James & Lindberg, Gunnar & Sundström, Kristian, 2011. "Willingness to Pay and Sensitivity to Time Framing: A Theoretical Analysis and an Application on Car Safety," TSE Working Papers 11-271, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  9. Marija Bockarjova & Piet Rietveld & Erik T. Verhoef, 2012. "Scale, Scope and Cognition: Context Analysis of Multiple Stated Choice Experiments on the Values of Life and Limb," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-046/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  10. Marija Bockarjova & Piet Rietveld & Erik T. Verhoef, 2012. "Scale, Scope and Cognition: Context Analysis of Multiple Stated Choice Experiments on the Values of Life and Limb," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-046/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  11. Andrea Leiter, 2011. "Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 331-344, August.
  12. Adriana Villamarin Garcia, 2011. "Prevenir y calcular una estimacion de los costos de la violencia homicida en Colombia," DOCUMENTOS DE CERAC 009108, CERAC -CENTRO DE RECURSOS PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE CONFLICTOS-.
  13. Dorte Gyrd-Hansen, 2013. "Using the Stated Preference Technique for Eliciting Valuations: The Role of the Payment Vehicle," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 31(10), pages 853-861, October.
  14. Hoffmann, Sandra & Qin, Ping & Krupnick, Alan & Badrakh, Burmaajav & Batbaatar, Suvd & Altangerel, Enkhjargal & Sereeter, Lodoysamba, 2012. "The willingness to pay for mortality risk reductions in Mongolia," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 493-513.

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