Resource and Waste Taxation in the Theory of the Firm with Recycling Activities
AbstractThe management of solid waste has become an urgent problem in nations with a great population density. Accordingly, waste reduction through source reduction and recycling has become increasingly important. Our purpose is to show how prevention, recycling and disposal of waste could be part of a theory of the firm. We first derive efficient production functions from production processes with waste as a by-product. Waste obtained as new scrap can partially be recycled by using additional inputs in order to cut back the purchase of virgin material. Waste not completely recyclable will leave the firm as disposal which also entails cost to the firm. We use the dual cost function approach to develop a theory of the firm under solid residual management. Since the producer does not bear the full cost of disposal, there will be a bias toward virgin materials and away from recycling. The goal of the government is to stimulate the firms to recycle with respect to the preservation of exhaustible resources. An incentive to recycle is a tax on resources or on waste. In order to determine the tax levels the government maximizes welfare subject to the dynamic constraint for decumulation of land fill for waste deposits. This gives the user cost and its time profile for taxing waste disposal or virgin material. In a comparative statics analysis we compare the effect of taxes on waste vs. virgin material on effort to produce in a resource saving manner, on the quantity of recycled material, on output, and on the reduction of waste. Since the impact of environmental regulation on employment is important, our model detects seven effects on labor demand as part of resource conservation policy. We finally carry out a comparative statics analysis of waste intensive firms operating in different market structures. Of interest is the impact of a resource or waste taxation on market volume, on the number of firms, on resource saving effort, and on profit. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists in its journal Environmental and Resource Economics.
Volume (Year): 14 (1999)
Issue (Month): 2 (September)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100263
disposal taxes; environmental regulation; recycling; taxation of depletable resources; waste accumulation;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Baumol, William J., 1977. "On recycling as a moot environmental issue," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 83-87, March.
- Schlottmann, Alan, 1977. "New life for old garbage Resource and energy recovery from solid wastes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 57-67, March.
- Ian M. Dobbs, 1991. "Litter and Waste Management: Disposal Taxes versus User Charges," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 24(1), pages 221-27, February.
- Don Fullerton & Thomas C. Kinnaman, 1996.
"Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping,"
NBER Working Papers
4374, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fullerton Don & Kinnaman Thomas C., 1995. "Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 78-91, July.
- Anderson, Robert C. & Spiegelman, Richard D., 1977. "Tax policy and secondary material use," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 68-82, March.
- Noel, Michael, 1978. "Resource extraction and recycling with environmental costs," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 220-235, September.
- Anni Huhtala, 1997. "A Post-Consumer Waste Management Model for Determining Optimal Levels of Recycling and Landfilling," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(3), pages 301-314, October.
- Keeler, Emmett & Spence, Michael & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1972. "The optimal control of pollution," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 19-34, February.
- Anderson, Curt L., 1987. "The production process: Inputs and wastes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 1-12, March.
- Don Fullerton & Wenbo Wu, 1996.
"Policies for Green Design,"
NBER Working Papers
5594, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rafael Lusky, 1976. "A Model of Recycling and Pollution Control," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 9(1), pages 91-101, February.
- Smith, Vernon L, 1972. "Dynamics of Waste Accumulation: Disposal Versus Recycling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 600-616, November.
- Rousso, Ada S. & Shah, Shvetank P., 1994. "Packaging Taxes and Recycling Incentives: The German Green Dot Program," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 47(3), pages 689-701, September.
- Morris Glenn E. & Holthausen Jr. Duncan M., 1994. "The Economics of Household Solid Waste Generation and Disposal," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 215-234, May.
- Ready Mark J. & Ready Richard C., 1995. "Optimal Pricing of Depletable, Replaceable Resources: The Case of Landfill Tipping Fees," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 307-323, May.
- Dinan Terry M., 1993. "Economic Efficiency Effects of Alternative Policies for Reducing Waste Disposal," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 242-256, November.
- C. G. Plourde, 1972. "A Model of Waste Accumulation and Disposal," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 5(1), pages 119-25, February.
- Conrad, Klaus & Wang, Jianmin, 1993. "The effect of emission taxes and abatement subsidies on market structure," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 499-518.
- Karen Pittel, 2006. "A Kuznets Curve for Recycling," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 06/52, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
- Jannett Highfill & Michael McAsey, 2001. "Landfilling Versus ``Backstop'' Recycling When Income Is Growing," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 19(1), pages 37-52, May.
- Karen Pittel & Amigues Jean-Pierre & Thomas Kuhn, 2005. "Endogenous growth and recycling : a material balance approach," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 05/37, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
- Massimiliano Mazzanti & Roberto Zoboli, 2008. "Waste Generation, Incineration and Landfill Diversion. De-coupling Trends, Socio-Economic Drivers and Policy Effectiveness in the EU," Working Papers 2008.94, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Nazzal, Dima & Batarseh, Ola & Patzner, Joshua & Martin, Darren R., 2013. "Product servicing for lifespan extension and sustainable consumption: An optimization approach," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 142(1), pages 105-114.
- Anni Huhtala & Eva Samakovlis, 2002. "Does International Harmonization of Environmental Policy Instruments Make Economic Sense?," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 21(3), pages 259-284, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.