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The Monetary Value of Competitive Balance for Sport Consumers: A Stated Preference Approach to European Professional Football

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  • Tim Pawlowski

    ()
    (University of Tuebingen)

  • Oliver Budzinski

    ()
    (Ilmenau University of Technology)

Abstract

Ever since the pioneering work of Rottenberg (1956) and Neale (1964), the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis (UOH) has played a major role in the economic analysis of professional sport leagues. However, decades of empirical research have not been successful in establishing clear evidence for the importance of competitive balance (CB) for attendance or TV viewers in European professional football. In order to find possible reasons for the gap between the UOH and (the lack of) its empirical validation, our paper adopts a stated preference approach focused on the fans’ perception of CB and its relevance in three European professional football leagues. The results indicate that a tipping point/threshold value of CB exists and that crossing this threshold can lead to massive demand reactions. However, since the threshold has not been reached in the leagues included in the sample, the paper provides a possible explanation for the above mentioned gap.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Fitness Information Technology in its journal International Journal of Sport Finance.

Volume (Year): 8 (2013)
Issue (Month): 2 (May)
Pages: 112-123

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Handle: RePEc:jsf:intjsf:v:8:y:2013:i:2:p:112-123

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Related research

Keywords: willingness-to-pay; competitive balance; uncertainty of outcome hypothesis; European football;

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References

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  1. Zou, Ning Ning (Helen) & Hobbs, Jill E., 2006. "Modelling functional food choice and health care impacts: A literature review," Consumer and Market Demand Network Papers 91556, University of Alberta, Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology.
  2. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Stadtmann, Georg, 1999. "Uncertainty of outcome versus reputation: empirical evidence for the First German Football Division," ZEW Discussion Papers 99-46, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Simon Rottenberg, 1956. "The Baseball Players' Labor Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 242.
  4. Brad R. Humphreys, 2002. "Alternative Measures of Competitive Balance in Sports Leagues," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(2), pages 133-148, May.
  5. Tim Pawlowski, 2013. "Testing the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis in European Professional Football," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 14(4), pages 341-367, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Lahvicka, Jiri, 2013. "Does Match Uncertainty Increase Attendance? A Non-Regression Approach," MPRA Paper 48571, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Pawlowski, Tim & Budzinski, Oliver, 2014. "Competitive balance and attention level effects: Theoretical considerations and preliminary evidence," Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers 84, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Economics.
  3. Lahvicka, Jiri, 2013. "Impact of playoffs on seasonal uncertainty in Czech ice hockey Extraliga," MPRA Paper 44608, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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