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Option-Based Prediction of Commercial Mortgage Defaults

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    Abstract

    Underwriters set loan-to-value ratios and loan contract interest rates of uninsured commercial mortgages to anticipate the likelihood of subsequent default. The results of the use of a modified Black-Scholes option model suggest that loan-to-value ratios are bound from below by borrowers' desires to maximize project leverage in a limited liability setting and constrained from above by lenders' requirement to originate loans with institutional-grade (Baa) contract interest rates. Given the prevailing risk-free rate and the investment-grade rate, this model at the time of mortgage origination predicts the possibility of default for a new commercial mortgage. The model is empirically verified with ACLI data for 1968-89.

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    File URL: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/papers/pdf/past/vol09n02/v09p219.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by American Real Estate Society in its journal Journal of Real Estate Research.

    Volume (Year): 9 (1994)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 219-236

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    Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:9:n:2:1994:p:219-236

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    Postal: American Real Estate Society Clemson University School of Business & Behavioral Science Department of Finance 401 Sirrine Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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    Postal: Diane Quarles American Real Estate Society Manager of Member Services Clemson University Box 341323 Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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    Web: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/about/get.htm

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    1. Michael J. Brennan & Eduardo S. Schwartz, 1985. "Determinants of GNMA Mortgage Prices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 13(3), pages 209-228.
    2. James L. Kuhle & Carl H. Walther & Charles H. Wurtzebach, 1986. "The Financial Performance of Real Estate Investment Trusts," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 1(1), pages 67-75.
    3. Leon G. Shilton & James R. Webb, 1989. "Commercial Loan Underwriting and Option Valuation," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 4(1), pages 1-12.
    4. Frydman, Halina & Altman, Edward I & Kao, Duen-Li, 1985. " Introducing Recursive Partitioning for Financial Classification: The Case of Financial Distress," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 269-91, March.
    5. James R. Webb & Jack H. Rubens, 1986. "Portfolio Considerations in the Valuation of Real Estate," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(3), pages 465-495.
    6. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
    7. Kaplan, Robert S & Urwitz, Gabriel, 1979. "Statistical Models of Bond Ratings: A Methodological Inquiry," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(2), pages 231-61, April.
    8. Kerry D. Vandell, 1992. "Predicting Commercial Mortgage Foreclosure Experience," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 20(1), pages 55-88.
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    Cited by:
    1. Bradford Case, 2003. "Loss characteristics of commercial real estate loan portfolios," Basel II White Paper 1, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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