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Probabilistic Valuation Models and Income Tax Asymmetries with an Application to the Analysis of Passive Loss Restrictions

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This paper develops a modified version of the standard real estate discounted cash flow valuation model that allows the analyst to specify probability distributions, rather than point estimates, on general inflation and rental income for each year of the expected holding period. Explicit modeling of rental income uncertainty is especially critical in the presence of restrictions that cause the tax treatment of income-producing property to be asymmetric. This is demonstrated by an analysis of the restrictions on passive activity losses (PAL) that were introduced with the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986. The probability model results indicate that rational investors can pay significantly more for an income property as a result of the elimination of PAL restrictions than would be indicated by the results produced by a standard discounted cash flow "point estimate" model. This is due to the reduction in the skewness of the after-tax returns generated by the property when PAL restrictions are eliminated, and the decline in the required equity discount rate that results from the decreased variance of the after-tax returns.

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File URL: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/papers/pdf/past/vol08n02/v08p189.pdf
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Article provided by American Real Estate Society in its journal Journal of Real Estate Research.

Volume (Year): 8 (1993)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 205-220

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Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:8:n:2:1993:p:205-220

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Postal: American Real Estate Society Clemson University School of Business & Behavioral Science Department of Finance 401 Sirrine Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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Web page: http://www.aresnet.org/

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Postal: Diane Quarles American Real Estate Society Manager of Member Services Clemson University Box 341323 Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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Web: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/about/get.htm

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  1. K. C. Chan & Patric H. Hendershott & Anthony B. Sanders, 1990. "Risk and Return on Real Estate: Evidence from Equity REITs," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 18(4), pages 431-452.
  2. Joseph Gyourko & Donald B. Keim, . "What Does the Stock Market Tell Us About Real Estate Returns? (Revised: 11-92)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 18-91, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  3. Paul H. Goebel & Kee S. Kim, 1989. "Performance Evaluation of Finite-Life Real Estate Investment Trusts," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 4(2), pages 57-70.
  4. John D. Martin & Douglas O. Cook, 1991. "A Comparison of the Recent Performance of Publicly Traded Real Property Portfolios and Common Stock," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 19(2), pages 184-212.
  5. W. B. Brueggeman & A. H. Chen & T. G. Thihodeau, 1984. "Real Estate Investment Funds: Performance and Portfolio Considerations," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 12(3), pages 333-354.
  6. Geltner, David Michael, 1991. "Smoothing in Appraisal-Based Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 327-45, September.
  7. Crocker H. Liu & David J. Hartzell & Terry V. Grissom & Wylie Greig, 1990. "The Composition of the Market Portfolio and Real Estate Investment Performance," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 18(1), pages 49-75.
  8. Ross, Stephen A & Zisler, Randall C, 1991. "Risk and Return in Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 175-90, June.
  9. James L. Kuhle & Carl H. Walther & Charles H. Wurtzebach, 1986. "The Financial Performance of Real Estate Investment Trusts," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 1(1), pages 67-75.
  10. Sheridan Titman & Arthur Warga, 1986. "Risk and the Performance of Real Estate Investment Trusts: A Multiple Index Approach," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(3), pages 414-431.
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