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The Pricing of Home Mortgage Loans to Minority Borrowers: How Much of the APR Differential Can We Explain?

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  • Marsha J. Courchane

    ()
    (Vice President, Litigation and Applied Economics, CRA International)

Abstract

The public releases of the 2004 and 2005 HMDA data have engendered a lively debate over the pricing of mortgage credit and its implications regarding the treatment of minority mortgage borrowers. This research uses aggregated proprietary data provided by lenders and an endogenous switching regression model to estimate the probability of taking out a subprime mortgage, and annual percentage rate (APR) conditional on getting either a subprime or prime mortgage. The findings reveal that up to 90% of the African American APR gap, and 85% of the Hispanic APR gap, is attributable to observable differences in underwriting, costing, and market factors that appropriately explain mortgage pricing differentials. Although any potential discrimination is problematic and should be addressed, the analysis suggests that little of the aggregate differences in APRs paid by minority and non-minority borrowers are appropriately attributed to differential treatment.

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File URL: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/papers/pdf/past/vol29n04/04.399_440.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Real Estate Society in its journal journal of Real Estate Research.

Volume (Year): 29 (2007)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 399-440

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Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:29:n:4:2007:p:399-440

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Postal: American Real Estate Society Clemson University School of Business & Behavioral Science Department of Finance 401 Sirrine Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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Web page: http://www.aresnet.org/

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Postal: Diane Quarles American Real Estate Society Manager of Member Services Clemson University Box 341323 Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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Web: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/about/get.htm

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  1. Yezer, Anthony M J & Phillips, Robert F & Trost, Robert P, 1994. "Bias in Estimates of Discrimination and Default in Mortgage Lending: The Effects of Simultaneity and Self-Selection," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 197-215, November.
  2. Jim Berkovec & Peter Zorn, 1996. "How Complete is HMDA? HMDA Coverage of Freddie Mac Purchases," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 11(1), pages 39-56.
  3. Stephen L. Ross & John Yinger, 2002. "The Color of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology, and Fair-Lending Enforcement," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262182289, December.
  4. Michael Lokshin & Zurab Sajaia, 2004. "Maximum likelihood estimation of endogenous switching regression models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(3), pages 282-289, September.
  5. Pennington-Cross, Anthony, 2003. "Credit History and the Performance of Prime and Nonprime Mortgages," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 279-301, November.
  6. Marsha J. Courchane & Brian J. Surette & Peter M. Zorn, 2004. "Subprime Borrowers: Mortgage Transitions and Outcomes," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 365-392, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Patrick Bayer & Fernando Ferreira & Stephen Ross, 2013. "The Vulnerability of Minority Homeowners in the Housing Boom and Bust," Working Papers 13-7, Duke University, Department of Economics.
  2. Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn B. Canner, 2010. "Does credit scoring produce a disparate impact?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2010-58, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Ping Cheng & Zhenguo Lin & Yingchun Liu, 2011. "Do Women Pay More for Mortgages?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 423-440, November.
  4. Jonathan Spader & Roberto Quercia, 2011. "Mortgage Brokers and the Refinancing Transaction: Evidence from CRA Borrowers," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 181-210, February.
  5. Michael LaCour-Little, 2009. "The Pricing of Mortgages by Brokers: An Agency Problem?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 31(2), pages 235-264.
  6. Yan Zhang, 2013. "Fair Lending Analysis of Mortgage Pricing: Does Underwriting Matter?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 131-151, January.
  7. Diaz-Serrano, Luis & Raya, Josep M., 2014. "Mortgages, immigrants and discrimination: An analysis of the interest rates in Spain," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 22-32.
  8. Luis Diaz-Serrano & Josep M. Raya, 2011. "Is there Discriminatory Mortgage Pricing against Immigrants in the Spanish Lending Market?," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1869, European Regional Science Association.
  9. Díaz Serrano, Lluís & Raya, Josep Maria, 2011. "Is there Descriminatory Mortgage Pricing against Immigrants in the Spanish Lending Market?," Working Papers 2072/151811, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.

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