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International Real Estate Diversification: Empirical Tests using Hedged Indices

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    Abstract

    This study examines the potential diversification opportunities arising from the extension of real estate portfolios into an international environment. Using data for ten countries, the article compares the diversification benefits obtained from both real estate securities and hedged indices. The hedged indices are constructed in line with the methodology proposed by Giliberto (1993) and are examined as a potential alternative proxy for the direct market. The results indicate that while benefits do arise from international diversification, the results tend to be statistically significant only when local returns are used and no constraints are imposed on the optimal portfolios. In addition, there are concerns over the reliability of the mean return and correlation coefficients obtained using the hedged indices.

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    File URL: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/papers/pdf/past/vol19n01/v19n105_132.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by American Real Estate Society in its journal Journal of Real Estate Research.

    Volume (Year): 19 (2000)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 105-131

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    Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:19:n:1:2000:p:105-131

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: American Real Estate Society Clemson University School of Business & Behavioral Science Department of Finance 401 Sirrine Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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    Web page: http://www.aresnet.org/

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    Postal: Diane Quarles American Real Estate Society Manager of Member Services Clemson University Box 341323 Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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    Web: http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/jrer/about/get.htm

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    1. Kandel, Shmuel & Stambaugh, Robert F, 1989. "A Mean-Variance Framework for Tests of Asset Pricing Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 2(2), pages 125-56.
    2. Jorion, Philippe, 1985. "International Portfolio Diversification with Estimation Risk," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(3), pages 259-78, July.
    3. Alan J. Ziobrowski & Richard Curcio, 1991. "Diversification Benefits of U.S. Real Estate to Foreign Investors," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 6(2), pages 119-142.
    4. Yougou Liang & Michael J. Seiler & Arjun Chatrath, 1998. "Are REIT Returns Hedgeable?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(1), pages 87-98.
    5. Glen, Jack & Jorion, Philippe, 1993. " Currency Hedging for International Portfolios," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1865-86, December.
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    7. Jarl G. Kallberg & Crocker H. Liu & D. Wylie Greig, 1996. "The Role of Real Estate in the Portfolio Allocation Process," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 24(3), pages 359-377.
    8. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
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    10. Youguo Liang & Arjun Chatrath & Willard McIntosh, 1996. "Apartment REITs and Apartment Real Estate," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 11(3), pages 277-290.
    11. Ross, Stephen A & Zisler, Randall C, 1991. "Risk and Return in Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 175-90, June.
    12. Piet M.A. Eichholtz, 1996. "The Stability of the Covariances of International Property Share Returns," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 11(2), pages 149-158.
    13. Richard A. Graff & Michael S. Young, 1999. "The Magnitude of Random Appraisal Error in Commercial Real Estate Valuation," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 17(1), pages 33-54.
    14. Jobson, J D & Korkie, Bob M, 1981. "Performance Hypothesis Testing with the Sharpe and Treynor Measures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(4), pages 889-908, September.
    15. Piet Eichholtz & Ronald Huisman & Kees Koedijk & Lisa Schuin, 1998. "Continental Factors in International Real Estate Returns," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 493-509.
    16. Alan J. Ziobrowski & Brigitte J. Ziobrowski & Sidney Rosenberg, 1997. "Currency Swaps and International Real Estate Investment," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(2), pages 223-251.
    17. MacKinlay, A Craig & Richardson, Matthew P, 1991. " Using Generalized Method of Moments to Test Mean-Variance Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 511-27, June.
    18. David Geltner, 1993. "Temporal Aggregation in Real Estate Return Indices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 21(2), pages 141-166.
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    Cited by:
    1. Francisco Peñaranda & Enrique Sentana, 2008. "Spanning tests in return and stochastic discount factor mean-variance frontiers: A unifying approach," Economics Working Papers 1101, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Sep 2010.
    2. Patrick Wilson & Simon Stevenson & Ralf Zurbruegg, 2007. "Foreign Property Shocks and the Impact on Domestic Securitized Real Estate Markets: An Unobserved Components Approach," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 407-424, April.
    3. Barry, Christopher B. & Rodriguez, Mauricio, 2004. "Risk and return characteristics of property indices in emerging markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 131-159, June.
    4. Foort Hamelink & Martin Hoesli, 2004. "What Factors Determine International Real Estate Security Returns?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 32(3), pages 437-462, 09.
    5. Craig Ellis & Patrick J. Wilson & Ralf Zurbruegg, 2007. "Real Estate ‘Value’ Stocks and International Diversification," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 265-287, September.
    6. Laura Ryan, 2010. "Nowhere to hide: an analysis of investment opportunities in listed property markets during financial market crises," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(2), pages 97-131, May.
    7. Shaukat, Mughees, 2010. "The Benefits and Importance of Commercial Real Estate," MPRA Paper 28268, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Martin Hoesli & Jon Lekander & Witold Witkiewicz, 2004. "New International Evidence on Real Estate as a Portfolio Diversifier," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 26(2), pages 161-206.
    9. John Gallo & Ying Zhang, 2010. "Global Property Market Diversification," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 458-485, November.
    10. Chyi Lee & Simon Stevenson & Ming-Long Lee, 2014. "Futures Trading, Spot Price Volatility and Market Efficiency: Evidence from European Real Estate Securities Futures," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 299-322, February.

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