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Der Einfluß von Imputed Rent auf die personelle Einkommensverteilung

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  • Joachim R. Frick

    ()
    (DIW Berlin)

  • Markus M. Grabka

    ()
    (DIW Berlin)

Abstract

This article deals with various methods concerning income advantages of owner occupied housing (imputed rental value or imputed rents), which shows to be one of the most important non-monetary income components. We also explore the effects of such advantages on the personal distribution of income. Following a description of the theoretical aspects of the various methods as well as their advantages and disadvantages, an empirical study based on the micro-data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) is then presented. In conclusion, recommendations for taking imputed rent into account in analysis of the distribution of individual income and income mobility are given, based on the theoretical framework and the empirical results of this study. Most important results of our analysis include (a) a slight decrease in overall income inequality due to the inclusion of imputed rent, and (b) a positive income advantage for the elderly, thus confirming the specific role of owner occupied housing as a means of old age provision.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics in its journal Journal of Economics and Statistics.

Volume (Year): 221 (2001)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 285-308

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Handle: RePEc:jns:jbstat:v:221:y:2001:i:3:p:285-308

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Keywords: Household income; personal income distribution; owner-occupied housing; imputed ren;

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References

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  1. René Böheim & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2000. "Do Current Income and Annual Income Measures Provide Different Pictures of Britain's Income Distribution?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 214, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  2. Yates, Judith, 1994. "Imputed Rent and Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 40(1), pages 43-66, March.
  3. Egon Bellgardt, 2000. "Wohnkosten und Besitzformwahl - Empirische Ergebnisse der Einkommens- und Verbrauchsstichprobe," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 220(6), pages 653-668.
  4. Aaberge, Rolf & Melby, Ingrid, 1998. "The Sensitivity of Income Inequality to Choice of Equivalence Scales," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 44(4), pages 565-69, December.
  5. Wolfe, Barbara L & Moffitt, Robert, 1991. "A New Index to Value In-Kind Benefits," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 37(4), pages 387-408, December.
  6. Richard V. Burkhauser & John G. Poupore, 1997. "A Cross-National Comparison Of Permanent Inequality In The United States And Germany," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(1), pages 10-17, February.
  7. Joachim R. Frick & Markus M. Grabka, 2000. "Personelle Einkommensverteilung und der Einfluß von Imputed Rent," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 225, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  8. Peter Gottschalk & Timothy M. Smeeding, 1997. "Cross-National Comparisons of Earnings and Income Inequality," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(2), pages 633-687, June.
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Cited by:
  1. Hoffmann, Johannes & Kurz, Claudia, 2002. "Rent indices for housing in West Germany 1985 to 1998," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,01, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  2. Joachim R. Frick & Markus M. Grabka, 2002. "The Personal Distribution of Income and Imputed Rent: A Cross-National Comparison for the UK, West Germany and the USA," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 271, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  3. Markus M. Grabka, 2005. "Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2004: CNEF Variables with Extended Income Information for the SOEP," Data Documentation 7, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  4. Kurz, Claudia & Hoffmann, Johannes, 2004. "A rental-equivalence index for owner-occupied housing in West Germany 1985 to 1998," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,08, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  5. Markus M. Grabka, 2006. "Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2005: CNEF Variables with Extended Income Information for the SOEP," Data Documentation 12, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  6. Markus M. Grabka, 2012. "Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2011: CNEF Variables with Extended Income Information for the SOEP," Data Documentation 65, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  7. Ingmar Kumpmann & Michael Guehne & Herbert S. Buscher, 2012. "Armut im Alter – Ursachenanalyse und eine Projektion fuer das Jahr 2023," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 232(1), pages 61-83, January.
  8. Joachim R. Frick & Jan Goebel & Markus M. Grabka, 2007. "Assessing the Distributional Impact of "Imputed Rent" and "Non-cash Employee Income" in Microdata: Case Studies Based on EU-SILC (2004) and SOEP (2002)," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 2, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  9. Markus M. Grabka, 2007. "Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2006: CNEF Variables with Extended Income Information for the SOEP," Data Documentation 21, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  10. Markus M. Grabka, 2011. "Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2010: CNEF Variables with Extended Income Information for the SOEP," Data Documentation 57, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  11. Markus M. Grabka, 2008. "Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2007: CNEF Variables with Extended Income Information for the SOEP," Data Documentation 34, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  12. Frick, Joachim R. & Grabka, Markus M. & Smeeding, Timothy M. & Tsakloglou, Panos, 2010. "Distributional effects of imputed rents in five European countries," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 167-179, September.

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