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WTP and WTA in competitive and non-competitive environments

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  • Shosh Shahrabani
  • Uri Benzion
  • Tal Shavit

Abstract

Theoretical equivalence exists among various auction mechanisms, specifically the Second-Price-Auction (SPA), a competitive environment, and the BDM mechanism, a non-competitive environment. Yet, empirical studies suggest that behavior in these mechanisms may diverge. Our experimental study examines the WTP and the WTA of individuals by analyzing buying and selling bidding patterns both for a physical product (mugs) and for two types of lotteries (regular lotteries and extreme lotteries) in these two auctions mechanism: SPA and BDM. We found that the WTP in the SPA is higher than the WTP in the BDM for mugs and for regular lotteries, while the mechanisms do not differ significantly for extreme lotteries. In addition, the WTA in the SPA is lower than in the BDM for regular lotteries only. These results indicate that the WTP and WTA, as well as the WTA-WTP gap, tend to differ in the SPA and in the BDM as a result of the interaction between the competitiveness effect and other psychological effects on bidding patterns for riskless and risky assets. In addition, the current study suggests that the competitiveness effect depends not only on the type of mechanism (SPA), but also on the type of item (physical assets or lotteries) and the type of lottery. In addition, the influence of the competitiveness effect may vary between buying and selling positions.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Society for Judgment and Decision Making in its journal Judgment and Decision Making.

Volume (Year): 3 (2008)
Issue (Month): (February)
Pages: 153-161

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Handle: RePEc:jdm:journl:v:3:y:2008:i::p:153-161

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Keywords: WTA; WTP; competitiveness; auction; lotteries.;

References

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  1. Noussair, C.N. & Ruffieux, B. & Robin , S., 2004. "Revealing consumers' willingness to pay: A comparison of the BDM mechanism and the vickrey auction," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-377937, Tilburg University.
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  7. Traub, Stefan & Schmidt, Ulrich, 2006. "An Experimental Investigation of the Disparity between WTA and WTP for Lotteries," Economics Working Papers 2006,09, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  8. Shogren, Jason F & Hayes, Dermot J, 1997. "Resolving Differences in Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 241-44, March.
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  11. Thaler, Richard, 1980. "Toward a positive theory of consumer choice," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 39-60, March.
  12. Charles R. Plott & Kathryn Zeiler, 2005. "The Willingness to Pay–Willingness to Accept Gap, the "Endowment Effect," Subject Misconceptions, and Experimental Procedures for Eliciting Valuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 530-545, June.
  13. Coursey, Don L & Hovis, John L & Schulze, William D, 1987. "The Disparity between Willingness to Accept and Willingness to Pay Measures of Value," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 102(3), pages 679-90, August.
  14. Horowitz, John K. & McConnell, Kenneth E., 2002. "A Review of WTA/WTP Studies," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 426-447, November.
  15. Tal Shavit & Shosh Shahrabani & Uri Benzion, 2006. "WTP--WTA disparity among competitive and non-competitive subjects -- an experimental study," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 2(5), pages 333-336, September.
  16. Sayman, Serdar & Onculer, Ayse, 2005. "Effects of study design characteristics on the WTA-WTP disparity: A meta analytical framework," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 289-312, April.
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