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Valuation of Brokers over Real Estate Cycles: Korean Evidence

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Author Info

  • Yun W. Park

    (College of Business and Economics, Chung-Ang University)

  • Doo Won Bang

    (Korea Housing Finance Corporation, Korea)

Abstract

We examine a unique Korean data set, the Kookmin Bank apartment price index, which is based on broker appraisals, in order to shed light on how brokers determine valuation over real estate cycles. We build a repeat sales apartment price index as well as a hedonic apartment price index by using the transaction data, which have become available in the public domain since 2006, and compare them with the Kookmin Bank apartment price index. By examining the volatility in the broker appraisals as well as the partial adjustment models of broker appraisals, we find that the appraisals are smoothed. Furthermore, the smoothing is asymmetrical and greater during down markets than up markets. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that brokers impound new transaction prices by using the quality of information as weight. The extent of smoothing and asymmetry in smoothing broker appraisals persist over two subsequent cycles contrary to the expectation that they would become more sensitive to transaction prices as transaction prices become more widely spread.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Asian Real Estate Society in its journal International Real Estate Review.

Volume (Year): 16 (2013)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 166-188

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Handle: RePEc:ire:issued:v:16:n:02:2013:p:166-188

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Postal: Asia Real Estate Society, 51 Monroe Street, Plaza E-6, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
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Web page: http://www.asres.org/

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Postal: Asian Real Estate Society, 51 Monroe Street, Plaza E-6, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
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Web: http://www.asres.org/

Related research

Keywords: Real estate brokers; Appraisals; Appraisal smoothing; Real estate cycles; Transaction prices; Disclosure;

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References

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  1. Jeremy C. Stein, 1993. "Prices and Trading Volume in the Housing Market: A Model with Downpayment Effects," NBER Working Papers 4373, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Julian Diaz & Marvin L. Wolverton, 1998. "A Longitudinal Examination of the Appraisal Smoothing Hypothesis," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(2), pages 349-358.
  3. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
  4. Jim Clayton & Norman Miller & Liang Peng, 2010. "Price-volume Correlation in the Housing Market: Causality and Co-movements," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 14-40, January.
  5. Chinloy, Peter & Cho, Man & Megbolugbe, Isaac F, 1997. "Appraisals, Transaction Incentives, and Smoothing," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1-2), pages 89-111, Jan.-Marc.
  6. Jim Clayton & David Geltner & Stanley W. Hamilton, 2001. "Smoothing in Commercial Property Valuations: Evidence from Individual Appraisals," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 29(3), pages 337-360.
  7. David M. Geltner, 1993. "Estimating Market Values from Appraised Values without Assuming an Efficient Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(3), pages 325-346.
  8. Rosen, Sherwin, 1974. "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(1), pages 34-55, Jan.-Feb..
  9. Charles K. Y. Leung & Garion C. K. Lau & Youngman C. F. Leong, 2002. "Testing Alternative Theories of the Property Price-Trading Volume Correlation," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 23(3), pages 253-264.
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