Polarization and the Middle Class in Uruguay
AbstractSome approaches to measuring the middle class are based on an arbitrary definition such as income quartiles or the poverty line. Foster and Wolfson have recently developed a methodology without arbitrariness. We apply this tool and a complementary method–the relative distribution approach–to analyze the evolution of the middle class and polarization in Uruguay during the 1994-2004 and 2004-2010 periods. During the first period, characterized by increasing income inequality, the middle class declines and income polarization increases. In the second period, which includes the recovery from the 2002 downturn, we find that the middle class increases and polarization decreases.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. in its journal Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economia.
Volume (Year): 50 (2013)
Issue (Month): 2 (November)
Other versions of this item:
- D3 - Microeconomics - - Distribution
- D6 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics
- I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- François Bourguignon & Christian Morrisson, 2001.
"Inequality among World Citizens : 1820-1992,"
DELTA Working Papers
2001-18, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Eduardo Lora & Johanna Fajardo, 2011.
"Latin American Middle Classes: The Distance between Perception and Reality,"
65158, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Eduardo Lora & Johanna Fajardo, 2013. "Latin American Middle Classes: The Distance Between Perception and Reality," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
- Eduardo Lora & Deisy Johanna Fajardo, 2011. "Latin American Middle Classes: The Distance between Perception and Reality," Research Department Publications 4727, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Eduardo Lora & Johanna Fajardo, 2011. "Latin American Middle Classes: The Distance between Perception and Reality," IDB Publications 66198, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Riccardo Massari & Maria Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2009. "A dwindling middle class? Italian evidence in the 2000s," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 333-350, December.
- Leonardo Gasparini & Matias Horenstein & Ezequiel Molina & Sergio Olivieri, 2008. "Income Polarization in Latin America: Patterns and Links with Institutions and Conflict," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(4), pages 461-484.
- Garcia-Penalosa, Cecilia & Aghion, Philippe & Caroli, Eve, 1999.
"Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories,"
Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine
123456789/10091, Paris Dauphine University.
- Cecilia Garcia-Penalosa & Eve Caroli & Philippe Aghion, 1999. "Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(4), pages 1615-1660, December.
- Aghion, Philippe & Caroli, Eve & Garcia-Penalosa, Cecilia, 1999. "Inequality and economic growth: the perspective of the new growth theories," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9908, CEPREMAP.
- Banerjee, Abhijit & Duflo, Esther, 2007.
"What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes Around the World?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6613, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Abhijit V. Banerjee & Esther Duflo, 2008. "What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 3-28, Spring.
- Esther Duflo & Abhijit Banerjee, 2008. "What is Middle Class About the Middle Classes Around the World?," Working Papers id:1363, eSocialSciences.
- marina, azzimonti, 2009.
"Barriers to investment in polarized societies,"
25936, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Barro, Robert J., 1999.
"Determinants of Democracy,"
3451297, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1994.
"On the Measurement of Polarization,"
Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 819-51, July.
- Esteban, J. & Ray, D., 1993. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 221.93, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Joan-Maria Esteban & Debraj Ray, 1991. "On the Measurement of Polarization," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 18, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Esteban, J.M. & Ray, D., 1992. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 171.92, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Marcelo Bérgolo & Guillermo Cruces, 2011. "Labor Informality and the Incentive Effects of Social Security: Evidence from a Health Reform in Uruguay," IDB Publications 62318, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Easterly, William, 2000.
"the middle class consensus and economic development,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2346, The World Bank.
- Easterly, William, 2001. " The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 317-35, December.
- Lopez-Calva, Luis F. & Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo, 2011. "A vulnerability approach to the definition of the middle class," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5902, The World Bank.
- Fernando Borraz & Nicolás González, 2009. "Impact of the Uruguayan Conditional Cash Transfer Program," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 46(134), pages 243-271.
- Lykke Andersen, 2001. "Social Mobility in Latin America: Links with Adolescent Schooling," Research Department Publications 3130, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Clementi, F. & Schettino, F., 2013.
"Income polarization in Brazil, 2001-2011: A distributional analysis using PNAD data,"
2013 Second Congress, June 6-7, 2013, Parma, Italy
149891, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
- Fabio Clementi & Francesco Schettino, 2013. "Income polarization in Brazil, 2001-2011: A distributional analysis using PNAD data," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(3), pages 1796-1815.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jaime Casassus).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.