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Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large

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Author Info

  • Martijn J. van den Assem

    ()
    (Department of Business Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3062 PA Rotterdam, The Netherlands)

  • Dennie van Dolder

    ()
    (Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3062 PA Rotterdam, The Netherlands)

  • Richard H. Thaler

    ()
    (Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637)

Abstract

We examine cooperative behavior when large sums of money are at stake, using data from the television game show Golden Balls . At the end of each episode, contestants play a variant on the classic prisoner's dilemma for large and widely ranging stakes averaging over $20,000. Cooperation is surprisingly high for amounts that would normally be considered consequential but look tiny in their current context, what we call a "big peanuts" phenomenon. Utilizing the prior interaction among contestants, we find evidence that people have reciprocal preferences. Surprisingly, there is little support for conditional cooperation in our sample. That is, players do not seem to be more likely to cooperate if their opponent might be expected to cooperate. Further, we replicate earlier findings that males are less cooperative than females, but this gender effect reverses for older contestants because men become increasingly cooperative as their age increases. This paper was accepted by Brad Barber, Teck Ho, and Terrance Odean, special issue editors.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1110.1413
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

Volume (Year): 58 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 2-20

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Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:58:y:2012:i:1:p:2-20

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Related research

Keywords: natural experiment; game show; prisoner's dilemma; cooperation; cooperative behavior; social behavior; social preferences; reciprocity; reciprocal behavior; context effects; anchoring;

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Cited by:
  1. David Schüller & Thorsten Upmann, 2013. "When Focal Points are Out of Focus: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Come Dine with Me," CESifo Working Paper Series 4138, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Burnham, Terence C., 2013. "Toward a neo-Darwinian synthesis of neoclassical and behavioral economics," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 90(S), pages S113-S127.
  3. Gurevich, Gregory & Kliger, Doron, 2013. "The Manipulation: Socio-economic decision making," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 171-184.
  4. Grätz, Silvia & Darai, Donja, 2011. "Determinants of Successful Cooperation in a Face-to-Face Social Dilemma," Annual Conference 2011 (Frankfurt, Main): The Order of the World Economy - Lessons from the Crisis 48702, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.

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